SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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"SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences"
: 1-3-2014
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ISSN: 1339-3057
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01, 2014
Philosophy
.., .. - Contra Descartes. Antecedents and Universality of Faith and Reason

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.9244

: In this article we attempt to demonstrate the initial coherence of faith and reason that cannot exist one without the other. Faith cannot be without the perception of reason, reason is based on faith. We contemplate faith not only as a religion, but more broadly, as universal for human beings. It involves not only faith in God, the Koran, Bible or other kinds of Holy Scripts, but also faith in ideals, faith between people, states, faith in future, etc. Firstly, we concentrate on the primary universality, restricted coherence of these phenomena in the life of a human being and mankind. This has been considered a great deal; however, we are interested in the impossibility of the existence of faith without reason and reason without faith.When subjectivist, Berkley, states that only sensation exists, but not objects, he is positive about it, he believes in his primary cognition. Similarly, when dialectic materialists make claims about the objective existence of the world and objects, they have an absolute faith in their primary cognition. To prove this they use practice as a criterion of the realness of what they say. In their primary cognition they also believe, though absolutely, in the realness of this judgment. Primary cognition based on faith in the self, can be obvious, or latent, or unobvious in the form of absolute assurance. That is to say, faith, trust in the self, even in our own doubts, are primary cognition for a human being. Misfaith in the self, our own senses and judgments is based on primary trust-faith in the rightness of such an attitude to them. When Rene Descartes says: "cogito ergo sum" - "I think therefore I am ", from this epoch of new science and ever after "cogito" (think) it was believed the first reliable cognition (act of faith and mind) primary is his faith in the realness of thought, faith-cognition (initial act of mind). Often this is not acknowledged. Faith in the realness of thought, as an initial act of thought, precedes the thinking process or occurs at one time. However, if faith-cognition is concurrent, it still precedes by substance, if not by time. This logic was first introduced by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in a different aspect.
.. - Lev Tolstoy: a Russian view of the world and man in it

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.10611

: The subject of the article is to analyze the anthropological theme in the works of Russian writer Lev Tolstoy and give a characteristic of the Russian view of the world. Lev Tolstoys works give a researcher a unique opportunity to have an idea about Russian worldview. An artist of genius, tireless worker and searcher for the meaning of life, the count-mouzhik left to future generations innumerable richness of observations, thoughts, artistic topics and images. Due to their depth and versatility they have long become and continue to be a subject of philosophical analysis. The article discusses a number of important meanings and values of Russian worldview that Tolstoy examined. First of all, in is the meaning (to be more precise search for the meaning) of that which crowns human life. The theme of death and Russian people attitude to it was studied by the writer throughout his whole creative life. The author uses the method of hermeneutic analysis of the Russian writers texts. Secular and theological thought referring to evaluation of the fear of death has been compared. The articles novelty is in looking for that which can oppose death. Having discovered for himself that the fear of death can be overcome through love as the fullest manifestation of God, Tolstoy turned to its analysis and then to consideration of the other side of this human feeling, devoting a number of great philosophical and artistic works to examination of passion. Sin and repentance, crime and punishment in human and social life, moral and legal justice are another worldview component of Tolstoys creative work. The thinkers creative search has not been completed. But the very process is that most valuable heritage that he left to the reflecting descendants.
.. - The metaphysics of man: images of being

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.10847

: The subject of study are human images that have taken shape in modern philos-ophy. The author proceeds from the assumption that the human image might be regarded in two dimensions: as human (human subjectivity) and as superhuman or meta-physical, manifested at various levels of his being, namely, semblance (possible being, being-as-seen) and seemingness (conditional being or being-as-if, pseudo-being as dis-tinct from true being), the objectively essential (whatness) and the subjectively essential (whoness). The metaphysical image proper that fixes the relationship with the transcen-dental world the true-essential, is differentiated into authenticity (self-being) and oth-erness (other-being). In his study, the author is guided by the methodology of existential phenomenol-ogy. From this viewpoint he offers his interpretation of the phenomena of human exist-ence expressed by the notions semblance and seemingness, whatness and whoness, authenticity and otherness. The novelty of this work is in revealing a metaphysical dimension of human being that hides behind the layers of the properly human human subjectivity, which is characterized by the tokens of thinking, freedom, creativity and reflexivity. At the latent level, the human image is expressed in terms of possible and conditional being. These, however, are but approaches to the main point. There is another essential level in the human being, which expresses his/her metaphysical essence other-being.
History
. - The Great War in Russian Memory

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.10813

: The Great War in Russian Memory, highly academic cultural history book that was published by Indiana University Press in 2011 (p.385). The author needed over the nine years to write this book and answer the question: which role has the Great war in the Russian collective memory and how it manifests. This research takles the questions of cultural history, gender history, propaganda and representations of war in the Soviet Union. Professional usability of this book enhances bibliography and a detailed register of the names and terms. Written with readable style, I highly recommend The Great War in Russian Memory to a wider circle of readers. The book should be translated into as many languages because it brilliantly completes our knowledge of Russia during the World War I and, later, the knowledge about everyday life in the Soviet Union.
Law
.. - Cosmic state: the forming and development of the idea in the history of thought

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.11412

: The article considers the philosophical-legal issues when forming and developing the idea about the cosmic state made by thinkers during different periods of time, starting from the Ancient World till Russian cosmism in the 20th century. It includes interpretations of ideas about the cosmic state in ancient mythology, in works of such thinkers as Antisfen, Diogenes of Sinope, Krates, Zeno, Platon, Iambulos, Seneca, Cicero, Dante, Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Paine, N.F. Fyodorov, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, A.F. Agienko, P.I. Ivanitsky, V.I. Vernadsky, N.K. Roerich, etc. Logical, historical, and comparative methods were used. The evaluation of the offered information contained in works of different thinkers was given from the position of a modern vision of the questions being studied, taking into consideration the level and prospects of the technical development of humanity, and the challenges of the XXIst century. It is observed that more intensive understanding of the potential of the state as a historical phenomenon took place while understanding cosmic aspects of the state in the history of political thought. Thinkers of different countries started to comprehend more deeply the unity of the world, the cosmic nature of a person and humanity, the foresight and comprehension of the coming cosmic human era and its appropriate political organization. The ideas about the cosmic state played a particular role in the liberation of the individual, and contributed to the development of the conception and forms of economic, political and legal integration, thereby extending the historical horizons of political consciousness.
Political science
.. - Armed rebellion in Ukraine could be the last wake-up call to Russia

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.11355

: Today the attention of the world is focused on the events in Ukraine. Cruelty and uncompromising in struggle having overgrown in a time so short from separate clashes of hooligans and police in organized armed rebellion can not be ignored - street fighting in the capital of the neighboring state, where representatives of the Slavic people inextricably linked historically with the Russian people take their part, can not but disturb the public, government and the leadership of the Russian Federation. Ukrainian nationalists balancing on the edge of ramming attack put on the acting government call the events "revolution", though in fact it can be considered only as a coup, armed rebellion to seize power, well known in the present-day world under the common title "a color revolution". And its not just a random conclusion: in the Ukraine events we can discern signs all of us had met with in color revolutions in the CIS, Georgia, Central Asia, in the orange madness that spread over the Ukraine at the beginning of the two thousands, as well as during the recent revolutions of the Arab Spring.
Economics
.. - The Internet as a system for transporting goods

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.11542

: The author considers the Internet as a system for transporting goods. The influence of the Internet on the transportation of goods is also considered. The delivery of digital goods (books, music, video) to customers is described. The main purpose of the article is to present the consequences of the advent of 3D printers which would allow for the delivery of material goods to the end-consumer (or retailer/end-producer). The author thinks that it is possible to dematerialize material objects with the help of a 3D scanner and ship them via the Internet to the end-consumer (end-producer or retailer), who could then reconstitute those objects with the help of a 3D printer at the destination. Finally, it is obvious from these hypotheses that Internet traffic volumes are likely to grow.
Psychology
.. - The Psychoanalytic Discourse in Russia about a Child Growing up in the Second Decade of the Twentieth century (Celebrating the Centennial of the Child Psychoanalysis Establishment in Russia)

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.10413

: 1. The psychoanalysis ideas of the early twentieth century in Russia had been distributed among a wide range of professionals; psychoanalytic concepts of S. Freud and his followers had been used by Russian doctors, teachers and psychologists for the systematic investigation of children in order to study their early mental development and the process of their socialization.2. Understanding of the child's mental life in its foundations in the study of Russian psychoanalysts such as M. Wolf, I.D. Ermakov, V.F. Schmidt, S. Spielrein, etc. does not contradict the cultural-historical theory ideas of L.S. Vygotsky. The shift of focus towards the child's constitutional development study is balanced by the analysts understanding of the environment creation necessary for their socialization, and practical recommendations for teachers and educators. 3. Many ideas of Russian analysts regarding the child's development anticipated the ideas of Western ones, but they were interrupted by the historical conditions of Russia development in the 1920s. 4. Social and cultural conditions in Russia of the 1920s and 1930s prevented psychoanalytic ideas developing further because of the acute demands of reality: the countrys social situation crisis, the necessity to develop fast effective psychological means of help for a child and a teacher, the lack of the required number of experts in this field, a large number of children and other problems.5. The restoration and interpretation of Russian psychoanalysts' ideas in the 1920s in the field of childhood are important for modern researchers. On the basis of this material they understand the uniqueness of the historical development path of domestic psychological knowledge about a child and the introduction of psychoanalytic ideas in the field of child development into the modern psychological knowledge circulation.
Arts
.., Reznikova K. - Three paintings by Albert-Charles Lebourg and philosophical foundations of Impressionism of the last third of the XIXfirst third of the XX centuries

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2014.1.10942

: Subject of research in this article is an artistic work of the great French artist Albert-Charles Lebourg. Paintings by Albert-Charles Lebourg belong to the artistic direction of French Impressionism. The authors make the philosophical and art historical analysis of the works of Albert-Charles Lebourg:1) Snow in Auvergne (the original title The Bridge over the Allier in Pont du Chateau in Winter ) (1886); 2) The Banks of the Seine, 1889; 3) The Two Boats in the Rays of the Rouen Sun, circa 1900. Research Methodology has philosophical and art historical analysis, which was developed by Russian philosophers and art historians: Danneel Pivovarov, Vladimir Zhukovsky, Natalia Koptseva. The article describing the method of art history work of art. The authors use the method of conceptual analysis to uncover the philosophical origins of French Impressionism. The hypothesis was proposed that for the first time in European artistic and intellectual practices Impressionism showed a new paradigm, connected with overcoming the difference between a persons internal and external reality, with the discovery of artistic form for expressing primary and universal integrity, given in direct experience and divided in psychic reality into external and internal dimensions. The critical artistic analysis of the three paintings by the great French Impressionist Albert -Charles Lebourg was made: Snow in Auvergne, The banks of the Seine, The two boats in the rays of Rouen sun, the main artistic ideas of these paintings were revealed. A deep conceptual link of the three paintings by Albert -Charles Lebourg was found, on the one hand, both artistic Buddhism and artistic psychologism (as cult (popular) conceptions of European intellectual life before the First World War). It was shown that Impressionist landscapes of this painter create and convey strongest visual impressions, modeling not only visual reality, but integral psychophysical reality, including the process of immediate flow of visual sensations, that has created and is supporting this strongest impression.
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