SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - рубрика Sociology
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SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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ГЛАВНАЯ > Журнал "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" > Рубрика "Sociology"
Sociology
Noyanzina O.E., Maximova S.G., Omel'chenko D.A., Goncharova N.P. - Individual risk factors of the social exclusion of senior citizens in modern Russia: on the example of three Siberian regions c. 1-17

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2017.2.22703

Abstract: The subject of this article is the examination of risk factors of social exclusion of the older population in the Russian Federation based on the integral assessment of indexes of the components of social exclusion. The author suggest the model for assessing the factors of social exclusion of the elderly that is developed with consideration of the fact that social exclusion is a multidimensional phenomenon, which reflects the economic structural, and sociocultural aspects. The work puts forward and tests the specific indicators of assessment of the social exclusion of the elders that is based on estimation of the socio-economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutions and services), deprivation of safety (safe environment), deprivation of social inclusion, cultural (normative) disintegration, and social autism. The authors highlight a number of the micro-level risk factors of exclusion, which a partially unmanageable, and partially manageable. The unmanageable (independent) risk factors of social exclusion imply: age (above 55 for women, and above 60 for men); solitary living; status (working/non-working pensioner); scale of pension; marital status; religion; ability to live independently; years of pensionable service; type of settlement (town/rural area). The manageable (dependent) risk factors imply: mobility; state of health; absence of privately-owned dwelling; low level of education; coping strategies; estimation of financial situation; lack of adaptation retirement. The assessment of social exclusion of the senior citizens in three regions of the Russian Federation (Altai Krai, Zabaykalsky Krai, and Kemerovo Oblast) was conducted using the results of sociological survey of 2016, with participation of 779 respondents in the age of 55 (female) and 60 (male). The main conclusion consists in the following statements: 1) being socially excluded does not imply experiencing deprivation in all aspects of exclusion, but rather its separate spheres; 2) disablement, restrictions in health and mobility definitely increase the risk of social exclusion; 3) each of the examined risk factors, by increasing the share of some components of social exclusion, inevitably decrease the share of others components of exclusion.
Danilenko D.V. - The Role of Human Rights in Transformation of Social Capital c. 1-20

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2017.3.24389

Abstract: The article tackles the questions of social capital transformation in developed countries. The author considers the role played by human rights in this process, form several points of view, including the influence of the human rights on traditional interpersonal forms and institutions of social capital (family, kin, neighbors…), as well as the role of human rights in broad forms (national, universal) of social capital transformation. The author does not limit his thinking to – almost ubiquitously admitted in social sciences – questions of depletion (deterioration) of social capital but also considers the less accepted issues of reconstruction of social capital. Several conclusions are drawn. First, the human rights, among other factors, have contributed to the deterioration of social capital (especially the traditional forms and institutions of interpersonal social capital). Second, human rights have also contributed to construction of social capital, especially the broad (national and universal) forms of social capital. Moreover, the author advances the idea that if the traditional interpersonal forms of social capital were depleted under the influence of several factors (human rights among them), the human rights played almost exclusive role in construction of broad forms of social capital.
Trofimova I.N. - Institutional trust in today’s Russian society: causes and factors c. 1-9

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2017.4.24512

Abstract: This article examines the issues of public institutional trust in modern Russian society based on the results of sociological monitoring. Special attention is given to the analysis of the structure and dynamics of trust in the context of current events and processes. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the fact that institutional trust is in a state of constant dynamic under the influence of various and diverse processes. This is especially characteristic for the transitional societies, where there is simultaneous and equal force applied by the established and situational, objective and subjective, internal and external factors. The author concludes that the structure of institutional trust reflects specific traits inherent in the Russian political culture, while its dynamic reflects the changes taking place in the society. The interaction between the sociocultural, economic and political factors is brought by the constant “shift” of trust from one institution or group to other, simultaneously insuring stability and adaptability of the institutional system to the changing environment.
Rulan N. - The equality of men and women: ethics in the XXI century? c. 1-24

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2018.2.26148

Abstract: The author examines the questions of gender equality in the modern world, as well as from the historical-anthropological perspective. The article deals with the examples of gender inequality from the physical, sociological and psychological standpoints, in various cultures, and how it can affect marriages between men and women, where interdependence and mutual interest play a significant role in consummation and preservation of marriage. The work leans on the cases of Norwegian-Russian and French-Russian marital unions, using the traditional to sociology and jurisprudence method of scientific research. The material carries anthropological character, which explains the extensive use of the methods of historical sciences. The author explicates the causes of gender inequality, their origin and consolidation in the culture, religion, and law, as well as demonstrates a range of interesting examples of sociological, cultural, and legal inequality of genders from the various cultural environments, countries and continents. Using the precedents of Norwegian-Russian and French-Russian marriages, the author analyzes how their union is preserved based on the interdependence and mutual interest.
Brushkova L. - Social promotion as a means of representation of values of a healthy lifestyle in Russian society c. 9-20

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2018.1.25663

Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of representation of values of a healthy lifestyle in the social promotion video ads in Russia. Several various components of healthy lifestyle are being highlighted, and analysis is conducted on their portrayal in advertisements (type of health, advertisement image, emotional effect, level of health, character and format of reflection of health issues). The videos of social promotion representing the values of a healthy lifestyle are analyzed in the context of relevance of the issues raised therein that pertain to the Russian society and comparison of this data with statistics of sociological research and expert opinions. The conducted research allowed the author to conclude that there is a certain decrease in the activity of social promotion in the work of forming and spreading values of healthy living in the Russian society, even though there is a pressing need for it. The emerged “vacuum” is partially filled by commercial advertisements, which “exploits” values of healthy lifestyle primarily for commercial purposes.
Řezáč P., Kurečková V., Zámečník P., Trepáčová M. - Structure of driver rehabilitation programs and their evaluation in the Czech Republic c. 10-21

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2017.4.24552

Abstract: The article deals with driver rehabilitation programs. This program is intended for drivers whose driving licenses have been revoked for repeated traffic offenses or for transport crimes. This program aims to change the behavior and attitudes of dangerous drivers. The program consists of 6 group meetings, each lasting 4 hours. The meetings themselves combine education and therapeutic intervention. The process includes both, the work of the instructors, as well as group effort. Typical participants of this program are DWI/DUI drivers. The rehabilitation program works in most European countries. In the Czech Republic the program is currently in trial stages. This study presents step-by-step structure of driver rehabilitation program in the Czech Republic. The authors also attempt to assess the efficiency of this program. It is always important to consider the possibilities of evaluating such measures in the implementation of any action aimed at changing the behavior and attitudes of an individual.
Uvarov A.A. - On the state of civil society in Russia and the tendencies of its development c. 18-27

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2017.2.23328

Abstract: On the state and trends of development of civil society in RussiaThis article analyzed the questions associated with citizens’ participation in the work of civil society institutions. The author turns attention to the level of citizens’ demand for different types of social institutions, as well as motivation for participation in them. Particular attention is given to the prospects of development of various models of civil society in Russia alongside the problems of formation of middle class, which is called to become a backbone of civil society. Statistical data on the state of civil society in Russia testify to the loss of influence upon the citizens of formalized structures of civil society. Such trend is further aggravated by government imposition of the so-called pseudo-structures of civil society, which introduce the typical bureaucratic flaws of state apparatus. Lack of control and irresponsibility cause the additional problems in civil society. The author suggests the original legal approaches towards resolution of the problems of debureaucratization of civil society, advancement of the promising and relevant directions of its development in Russia, which consists in volunteering, charity, and work of the nonprofit socially oriented organizations. Separate proposition and assessment of the author pertain to the role of the informal manifestations of civil society.
Buchkova A. - The attitude of the Russian youth towards politics and political parties: sociological perspective just before the federal electoral cycle c. 22-31

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2016.3.20431

Abstract: The object of this research is the youth of the modern Russia. The subject of this research is the attitude and interest of the youth towards politics as a whole, including political parties and federal level elections. The author examines the importance of political sphere for the young generation, as well as specificity of their interest towards the political processes and political parties, which at the present stage are one of the active conduits of political ideas. Special attention is given to the analysis of youth’s perception of the upcoming elections into the State Duma of Federal Assembly of Russia along with the Presidential elections. Scientific novelty lies in the comparative analysis that is based on sociological snapshots right before the federal electoral cycles of 2011-2012 and 2016-2018 with regards to the attitude of the young generation towards politics, political parties, and elections. The following trends are highlighted: the number of youth interested in political life of society on the permanent basis is decreasing; portion of those who is randomly shows interest in politics alongside those who do not show any interest in politics is increasing; the growing sympathy of the youth towards the political parties, etc. The conclusion is made that there is no significant changes are observed in the views, orientations, and interest of youth towards politics, political parties, and elections.
Kalabekova S.V. - Cosmopolitanism Vs Patriotism and the context of globalization c. 23-29

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2016.1.18037

Abstract: The object of the analysis is the research of the globalization trends, while the subject is the social substance and forms of manifestation of Cosmopolitanism and patriotism. The author examines the contradicting unity and interdependency of these phenomena, their impact upon the formation of the global thought and ethnic self-conscience. The author analyzes the correspondence of cosmopolitan values with the nature of globalization; importance of local identities and nationalistic-patriotic orientations, as well as their association with the values of universalism. A special attention is paid to the dependence of the progress of globalization upon the combination of cosmopolitan and local patriotic practices. The scientific novelty consists in substantiation of the thesis on the complex nature of Cosmopolitanism and patriotism. The ideas of Cosmopolitanism emerge in the course of historical development, being demanded by the conditions of national and political life, as well as requirements for civilized development. Therefore, the topic of this article allows the author to formulate the following conclusions: 1) demand for cosmopolitan orientations and patriotism values are actualized by the requirements of globalization; 2) the logic of modern development presupposes interconnection and interdependency of these crucial trends of globalization.
Sharov K.S. - The construction of system of gender power: the case of favoritism c. 23-29

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2019.2.27184

Abstract: On the example of gender-power relations built by Marquise Jeanne-Antoinette de Pompadour, mistress of the King Louis XV, most prominent favorite in history, from the perspective of psychoanalysis, this article analyses the feminine power discourses and complex systems of the gender social roles that the favorites – the women possessing the “shadow social and political power” – were able to structure. The goal of this research lies in the analysis of typical strategies of gender power, structured by the royal favorites, demonstrated on the example of Marquise de Pompadour, in which men were involved into decentralized system of women’s power. The author is first to reveal the basic patterns of formation of the system of gender-power role and codification of a number of them as social statuses. It is noted that the system of establishment of such roles correspond with the Lacanian Triad: Imaginary-Symbolic-Real. The symbolic level structuring gender roles by a woman possessing shadow power is the linguistic field. The imaginary level implies the formed by woman cultural traditions. The real level is represented by the created by woman social and political administrative strategies, which involve men as the subjects of women’s decentralized power into the system of gender-power relation, designed by a favorite. It is concluded that favoritism as a complicated social, psychological and cultural phenomenon is one of the most successful methods of manifestation of women’s “shadow” power in history.
Sharov K.S. - Social and psychological dimensions of gender power: Their characteristic features and mutual relationship c. 24-33

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2019.1.27265

Abstract: The object of the study is the system of gender-power relations in the society. The subject of the research is the social and psychological facets of the gender power system construction, their basic characteristics as well as the degree and limits of their mutual influence. The methodology includes research methods of power introduced by M. Foucault, L. Althusser, and J. Butler; psychoanalytic approaches of S. Freud and J. Lacan; structuralist method of analysis of communicative practices of M. Castells.Results, novelty, and conclusions. The novelty of the study consists in the theory of passional attachment introduced by the author, in which it is argued that the system of gender power in society is based on the psychological mechanism of interpellation and subjection of male psychics by women.The main conclusions are as follows: 1) gender self-identification and socialisation are associated with the Œdipus complex and Lacanian psychological stage of the mirror; 2) since the time of the ancient matriarchy, the symbolic power of the female has become fixed as an archetype of consciousness; 3) the gender power is being built on a subject-subject basis; in the society; 4) women’s building a system of gender power relations and gender roles on their basis, is usually carried out with a broad involvement of the symbolic sphere.
Omilusi M. - Globalization, pro-poor policies and Developmental Synergism: how civil society practitioners, policymakers and researchers work at cross-purposes in Africa c. 24-37

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2019.3.28904

Abstract: Based on desk research, this paper seeks to build on existing literature concerning how Africa can enhance effective government systems needed to make policies work better for poor people and meet the challenges of globalisation. While making an in-depth examination into the current seemingly antagonistic public-private development platforms in Africa, the paper also feeds into a dominant narrative which indicates areas of relevance to poverty reduction and participatory development when critical actors work in synergy. Through the use of an analytic narrative and descriptive method of data analysis, it therefore, explores the role national partnerships can play in bringing governments, the private sector and civil society together around shared strategies for formulation and implementation of pro-poor policies.
Разин А.С. - Ethno-confessional relations in modern Russia: formation and epistemological status

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.2.9940

Аннотация: In the modern social philosophy and ethnic sociology the different trend has become the dominant according to which nationality is the product of personality self-identification, that is a person subjective self-determination. With this approach, the criterion of nationality, as we can see, is not a traditional factor of kinship, and one of the elements of human self-consciousness. Today more and more popular is a synthetic concept of nationality. This means that the term "nationality" should, on the one hand, imply membership of a particular social and ethnic community - nation, nationality, ethnic group - and, on the other hand, be the result of subjective awareness, self-identification with this group. Socio-ethnic community, including tribe, nationality, nation, exists objectively and has such essential features as the economy, territory, way of life, vital activity, has specific transcendental characteristics (relationship to the world, mentality, ethnonym (self-designation), etc.).
Parashchevin M. - The place of religion in the perception of the meaning of life: Russian and Ukrainian context c. 32-43

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2016.3.20519

Abstract: gThe subject of this research is the role of religion in determination of the meaning of life of the modern believers in Russia and Ukraine. Religion, and Christianity in particular, has always been (and should be) the source of the meaning of life for its followers. The realization of such sense-making and sense-transmitting function by religion is an important condition of social importance and impact of religion. In modern societies, the scales of the social role of religion are not evident and are subjected to discussion. A comprehensive analysis of involvement of religion into the social processes and public consciousness is necessary for a more precise understanding of functionality of religion for modern societies. One of the possible features of such analysis is the assessment of religion’s involvement into conceptual structures of mass consciousness. The conclusion is made that the ability of Orthodoxy to become a real alternative to the dominant in modern societies “Western” values is significantly limited, because the values transmitted by Orthodoxy (particularly the orientation towards connection of the life values with the transcendent source) do not find public response. It is demonstrated that for the majority of Russian and Ukrainian believers, the religion ceased to be the foundation of conceptual structure. This, in turn, alongside the low level of spirituality, familiarization with the Orthodox dogma and readiness to independently form the meanings of own religion and include the elements from other religions and secular ideologies into these meanings, extremely limits the orientation towards the meanings and values transmitted by the Church.
Lipinsky D.A. - Social Bases of Positive Responsibility c. 41-69

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.3.16009

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to explore the social basis of positive legal responsibility and prove its legal nature and practical importance, as well as its connection with the rule-of-law state concept and civil society. To achieve this purpose the following methods were applied: dialectical, formal legal, sociological, and comparative legal studies. The application of a dialectical method enables to study the phenomenon comprehensively in its interconnection with practice and its development in social relations. The use of these methods has been tested by science and practice, which testifies to the efficiency of their application to legal research. The paper provides the author's definition of social and legal responsibility, offers the data of a survey on the question of positive legal responsibility and its regulatory impact. The author establishes the unified character of legal responsibility that includes a positive (voluntary) and negative (state-forced) forms of implementation. The study revealed that statutory (single) responsibility is an objectively determined, introduced by law and protected by the state duty (necessity) of legal relations participants to comply with statutory regulations, and, in case of violations, the obligation of the offender to suffer condemnation, restriction of property or personal non-property rights. Single responsibility is target objectively enshrined in the law, a reference point for proper behavior of legal subjects, and the criterion of its evaluation as responsible or irresponsible. This allows the subject that has not committed a legally significant act to know in advance about his or her responsibility, and allows the subject to focus on implementation of general legislative rules. If the subject complies by them, it means he or she acts legally responsibly, otherwise he or she acts irresponsibly. The consequences occur in compliance with the actions, which is consistent with the general principles of justice. The exclusion of responsibility that involves various forms of realization would mean the disappearance of the orienting goal, the criterion for evaluation of legally significant behavior as responsible or irresponsible. Responsibility as an integral legal phenomenon is in a static state: It is the basis, the reason, and the condition for appearance of the voluntary form of responsibility realization, as well as the criterion to define it as such. Without this condition, the appearance of the subsequent positive responsibility, which is a responsibility in a dynamic state, is not possible.
Yegorova M.A. - A person in a multicultural society: the problem of self-identification

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.1.14533

Abstract: The subject of this research is the review of the process of self-identification that happens on the background of the forming of a multicultural society with all its diversity, and at the same time with specific problems that are inherent for such type of a social construct. An analysis is conducted on the changes of human identity in the multicultural societies, and the attitude of an individual towards the surrounding multicultural world. The article examines the multiculturalism as a blueprint of a social structure in various countries of the world, especially in the countries of Western Europe and the European Union, where the character of multiculturalism is most evident. The author attempts to trace the cooperation of various groups in the framework of multicultural societies within other regions of the world such as Asia (an accent is made on China and Taiwan) and Europe. A conclusion is made on the need to search for a complex approach on the integration of not only groups, but work with separate individuals as well (on the level of schools, institutes, centers for studying the language and culture of the accepting community, etc.).
Zamotaev D.Y. - Political activity of Russia’s internet audience on a regional level as a constituent of civil society

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.1.14805

Abstract: The goal of this work is the analysis of Russia’s internet audience as a participant in the political communication on a regional level and its attitude towards the activity of the non-governmental public organizations as the important constituents of forming of civil society. The subject off this research includes the following components: 1. Socio-political analysis of the aspects of Russia’s internet audience; 2. The details of the online activity of the responders; 3. The perception of population about the role of non-governmental public organizations in Russia; 4. Classification of the public opinion of the population regarding the role and influence of the non-governmental organizations at the regional level. Selective polling was conducted on the population of the Krasnogorsky District of the Moscow Oblast consisting of 300 people between 20 and 62 years of age, representing the working class. The author emphasizes the need for a wide range of informational forums for a two-way communication at the regional level, and encouragement of citizens to participate in the dialogue, public discussion of the national politics online, and forming of the political culture of the society.
Kanasz T. - Emotion and Value Perspectives in Sociological Investigation of Happiness

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9367

Аннотация: The aim of this paper is to counter the following statement: the criticism of sociology for not involving issues of happiness is not fully justified. In general, both in classical as well as in contemporary sociology happiness has been included into sociological research. However, knowledge on happiness and happiness related phenomena is disseminated into different subfields of sociology (e.g. sociology of health, sociology of everyday life, sociology of culture etc.).Therefore, the main idea of this article is to show different ways of exploring happiness in various fields of sociology. Basically, the concept of happiness can be understood as an emotion (with its various types), a value (or rather a set of values) or an idea of “a good life”. Happiness as an emotion is explored by sociology of emotions, sociology of health, sociology of everyday life. Sociology of culture deals with happiness as a set of values. The topic of happiness as an idea of “a good life” appears in sociology of social change as well as in other fields of sociology related to family, education, politics, culture and media.Happiness can also be accompanied with other notions such as optimism, satisfaction with life, hope, or success. Sociology of happiness and well-being has been developed on the interdisciplinary basis and has not excluded studies of ill-being.The author believes that today, in the rapidly changing world, there is a greater than ever need for reflection on happiness and well-being of individuals.
Martyshenko N.S., Gusev E.G. - Social wellness monitoring in Primorsky Krai under the conditions of economic crisis c. 98-120

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.4.17218

Abstract: This article presents the results of the monitoring of public opinion of the Primorsky Krai related to the ongoing economic crisis. The results reveal that the economic crisis affects the social wellness of the population, and majority of the population experience a drop in quality of life, translating into social tension. The article presents the findings of the research on the Krai’s reaction to the changes in the structure of the selection of goods and services in the local market. The authors identify the categories of goods and services that demonstrated the drop in demand as a result of the sanctions against Russia, and conduct the analysis of the data from the monitoring of the social wellness of the population of Primorsky Krai, as well as various assessments of the consumer reactions to the changes in the market that have been gathered from two polls conducted in October of 2014 and October of 2015. A distinguishing factor of the conducted polls consists in the use of a vast number of open questions. A special computer program was used to summarize and categorize the responses. The authors conclude that the social wellness of the population is the key component of the success or failure of the reforms conducted by the government and branches of local authority.
Trofimova I.N. - Indexes and objectives of the socio-economic development of the Russian regions

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2015.2.15392

Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of the socio-economic development of the regions in Russia. The relevance of this research is justified by the growing disparity between various social classes, as well as separate territories. A special attention is given to the analysis of the correlation between the level of gross regional product (GRP) per capita and the level of average monthly income amongst region’s inhabitants. These indexes are reviewed not only as important factors of current situation within the regions, but also as strategic markers of a long-term socio-economic development. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research consists of the combination of positions that argue the greater importance of internal potential of socio-economic development of the regions in comparison to the administrative and political factors. The main conclusion of the research is determination of the existing disparity within the current socio-economic position of the regions and unfounded domination of the administrative and political approaches in setting the long-term goals for regional development. Inclusion of the indexes of the average monthly income and GRP into the long-term strategies for the socio-economic development of the regions must account not only for the administrative measures, but also for the development of internal potential of the regions, their cultural, economic, and social specificity.
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