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Sociology of Information-Psychological Security: the problem of formulating the definitions

Грачев Георгий Васильевич

доктор психологических наук

профессор, кафедра национальной безопасности, Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте РФ

Москва, пр-т Вернадского, д. 84

Grachev Georgii Vasil'evich

Doctor of Psychology

Professor, Department of National Security, the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration

Russia, Moskva, pr-t Vernadskogo, d. 84.

121432@gmail.com

DOI:

10.7256/2306-4226.2013.4.9416

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

17-11-2013


Дата публикации:

1-12-2013


Аннотация: At present more and more researchers and practicians draw their attention to the problem of use of employing amendments and deformation of information environment as specific information weapon for gaining political, economical, war and other objectives. Problems of information warfare, information protection, and information counteraction are worked out actively 1.In this respect a specific type of information security threats is pointed out, it concerns an individual, his or her personality first of all. To tell the truth, threats of this kind influence on state and social security through influence on people’s mentality. Thus, they can be defined as threats to a humanitarian part of information protection or as information-psychological security.The following threats are distinguished as another type of principal threats that can be defined in general as threats to an information and technical part of information security.


Ключевые слова: the international relations, the international safety, political conflicts, conflicts management technologies, conflicts management, psychological operations, information war, politica, interests, UN

Abstract: At present more and more researchers and practicians draw their attention to the problem of use of employing amendments and deformation of information environment as specific information weapon for gaining political, economical, war and other objectives. Problems of information warfare, information protection, and information counteraction are worked out actively 1.In this respect a specific type of information security threats is pointed out, it concerns an individual, his or her personality first of all. To tell the truth, threats of this kind influence on state and social security through influence on people’s mentality. Thus, they can be defined as threats to a humanitarian part of information protection or as information-psychological security.The following threats are distinguished as another type of principal threats that can be defined in general as threats to an information and technical part of information security.



Keywords:

the international relations, the international safety, political conflicts, conflicts management technologies, conflict management, psychological operations, information war, political, interests, the UN

Information security consists of two relatively separate spheres and includes two subjects correspondingly – an information-psychological part and an information- technical part.

Scientific research in the field of information technical security is carried out within the framework of technical disciplines.

Information psychological security is a subject for further examination by a number of humanitarian disciplines – philosophy, cultural science, psychology, sociology, political science, etc. This research is interdisciplinary, but it is possible to join examination so that it can be a separate and important trend in science and social praxis. To our point of view, this trend can be developed within the framework of separate scientific discipline that can be characterized as sociology of information- psychological security.

The main subject of social and philosophical, political and psychological and actually sociological analysis includes information-psychological security of an individual and society as an integrated social-political phenomenon. Moreover, in this case sociology is implied in its primary sense as science that cognizes society and that has theory methodological and social practical levels.

Under contemporary historical conditions new effective approaches to theory and security implementation are essential. Approaches should contribute to a harmonic integration of individual’s interests and state and social interests.

Provision of information-psychological security of an individual, society and state is a new separate trend of scientific research and social praxis. This trend is orientated on changing priorities in science and social consciousness and on practical transformation to a harmonic integration of individual’s interests and social and state interests during security implementation.

At present there is an actual necessity in working out a concept of information- psychological protection that highlights a harmonic integration of individual’s interests and social and state interests. It is of high importance to formulate a number of definitions, rulings and explanations of main guidelines for implementing information-psychological security in theory and in praxis.

The main idea of an author’s approach is the following – implementation of social information-psychological security, an individual and leadership are interrelated and interconnected. These are two sides of an integrated social process. Moreover, implementation of information-psychological protection of an individual is, on the one hand, an essential condition of social and state information-psychological security. But on the other hand, it is the process when society and state participate in creating an information-psychological security system and optimal conditions for organizing an individual’s psychological self-protection. Thus, that is one of the forms of an individual’s maturity as a separate subject with her or his own behavior and information interaction with different social subjects and information environment in condition of radical social changes and appearance of new security threats, which are defined by the influence of information factors on people’s mentality.

Currently the main research trends of information-psychological security can be divided in the following way: evolution of methods and technologies of information-psychological antagonism in war and peace periods; examination of information antagonism (according to a formal theory of self-educated information systems) as goal-oriented and widespread management of subjects and senses (creation, destruction, modification, imposing and blocking of senses by using information methods) for gaining certain goals. Moreover, main threats to information-psychological security of an individual and society under current circumstances; basic characteristics and peculiarities of information environment; a structure, characteristics, implementation spheres and modern peculiarities of information and psychological operations as complex organizational forms of information and psychological counteractions; methods and technologies of information and psychological influence; connection and interdependence of information-psychological security implementation and information-psychological security of an individual, society and state; system of information-psychological security of an individual and society; system of definitions of the examined area (information-psychological security).

The research of information protection problems reflects on broadening and defining of implied definitions and rulings. Working out, systematization, defining, and showing the interrelation of basic definitions which reflect information-psychological problems are one of the stages in developing concept grounds for sociology of information-psychological security. As basic definitions, which form the core of the discipline, can be pointed out the following ones: security, influence (including psychological, information-psychological), information environment, information-psychological security, information warfare, information counteraction, objects of information counteraction, information weapons, information-psychological counteraction, information-psychological operations, psychological security, a system of information-psychological security. Moreover, we take into consideration the above mentioned author’s point of view while giving definitions and the aforementioned definitions must not contradict each other, but the other way round form a single definition system (a system of interrelated and non-contradicting definitions).

Let us examine them more thoroughly:

SECURITY is a social political notion that appears as attribute of interrelation (as a characteristic, a trend) of social objects and environment, and that reflects a possibility of their constant functioning and development while keeping their integrity and qualitative definiteness (which expresses their essence).

To give a definition, which reflects a notion like security, it might be essential to take into consideration its different aspects: in particular the social subject itself or environment. There are various approaches to giving a definition of security taking into account the above-mentioned ones.

1) Security as a state of secured external environment that provides on the ground of balanced interests of different social subjects (a state, society, an individual) their interaction, vital activity and viability, stable functioning and development.

2) Security as an ability of social subjects (a state, society, a social group, an organization, an individual) to provide stable functioning and development in conditions of various threats and dangerous influence.

To our point of view, any short definition is considered as a definite compromise between these approaches and reflects certain aspects while defining a notion of security. If one combines these approaches, the short definition of security can be given, in this respect as a status of a social subject protectability. This status guarantees its stable functioning and development, preserves its integrity and certainty.

However, one should realize that this status could be achieved at the expense of environment parameters and their amendments as well as parameters of the subject and its changes. Thus, the ability to withstand various threats and dangers is shaped.

Moreover, environment changes can be originated from its internal sources of spontaneous development or can be initiated by the subject itself. The more broaden meaning of security as well as definitions of environment, subject, and interrelation suggest also using notions such as danger, threat, and protection.

INFLUENCE. In its common meaning influence is defined as an action when somebody or something influences on somebody or something at the expense of transformation of substance, motion, information, which concrete forms are implied as means of influence.

Different types of influence are recognized depending on means and object of influence. For instance, information influence, radiation influence, psychological influence and etc.

PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE. Influence is applied to people’s mind with application of various means. At present a notion of psychological influence combines different types, which are formed according to different arguments.

Psychological influence in its broaden meaning is defined taking into account the object of influence – mentality of people. Various means of influence can be used including non-psychological. Apart from information influence on an individual, there is a number of other means of influence, for example, chemical elements or electromagnetic irradiation of definite power and spectrum, mechanical damage of brains and etc. that influence on people’s mind resulting in changes of its functioning. Taking into account such means of influence and their consequences, the following types of psychological influence are distinguished: psychogenetic, psychotropic and so on. The narrower definition of psychological influence can be given on pointing out a subject, means and targets of influence, consequences. On applying this approach psychological influence is described as definite social activity of some people and their groups that implies use of different forms and various means (including non-psychological as well). Activity like this is oriented on other people and their groups aiming at changing their behavior through influence on their points of view, opinions, relations, valuable understanding, motives, guidelines and stereotypes, that is on their various psychological characteristics.

When pointing out means of influence on people’s mind, for instance, of information in different forms, a new form is distinguished that is information-psychological influence.

INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE. It is influence on people’s mind applying information in different forms and on various bearers. While defining a notion of information-psychological influence, it is vital to show its difference from such notions as information influence and psychological influence. Various types of influence are defined in accordance with the object of influence, goals (of the subject of influence), consequences and applied means or combination of pointed out criteria and parameters. For example, information propaganda, psychogenetic, psychotropic, psychopharmacological and etc.

Information influence is defined according to means of influence and information. Moreover, different information systems both technical and an individual herself or himself, a social group and so on can be objects.

Psychological influence in its broaden meaning is defined in accordance with an object of influence – mentality of people. Various means of influence including non-psychological can used as means of influence.

On defining the essence of the notion of information-psychological influence, it is noteworthy to point out the following peculiarities, which explain its application as a scientific definition.

First, this notion expresses the main function of information as a specific means of influence on people. Second, the object of information influence is pointed out, that is people’s mind (in comparison with the information one, that can be applied to other information systems).

The use of this definition at present results in distinguishing a new type of psychological influence, which is performed using means of signs, symbols, and images that correspond to main modality of people’s senses and feelings, but it is separated from such influence as psychophysical, energy information, psychogenetic, and some others.

INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT. Introduction and active use of the definition of information environment is connected, on the one hand, with the more profound understanding of the social environment, but on the other hand, under current circumstances the role and specific of information factors influence on vital activity of an individual and society in the whole is highlighted.

The notion of information environment can be defined as integrity of information and information-communicative (communication) processes, on taking part in them an individual can use the data accumulated by society, created by other subjects whether individuals or groups. Moreover, it is vital to carry out information connection with them directly or indirectly.

However, the notion of information sphere is currently actively used. The notion of information sphere is handled as a synonym of information environment.

INFORMATION SPHERE. Under information sphere in its common meaning is comprehended integrity of subjects of information interaction or influence; information itself that is used by subjects of information sphere; information infrastructure provides a possibility of information exchange between subjects; social relations, which are formed during collecting, transmission, distribution, and storage of information.

There are two general approaches to interpreting the notion of information sphere. Their main difference is including subjects of information interaction or excluding them from the structure of information sphere.

At present the definition of information sphere is used as a synonym of information environment.

INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE. It is a complicated sociotechnical system (environment) that provides a possibility of accumulating, storage, processing and distribution of information in the society.

Social information infrastructure is organized as an integrity of information and telecommunication systems and networks, industry of informatization systems, telecommunication and connection, a system of building and storing of information resources, a system that provides access to information and telecommunication systems, networks and information resources; industry of information services and information market; a system of training and re-training of staff, carrying out scientific research.

INFORMATION OPPOSITION. This is a system of measures (actions, actions or operations) that is aimed at gaining goals and implementing interests of one side (a country, a coalition, a bloc of countries) employing various means and methods of influence on information environment (subjects of information interaction and information infrastructure) of opposing sides and protection of its own information environment (subjects of information interaction and information infrastructure). The components of information environment (information sphere) are defined as objects of information opposition.

Information opposition can be applied not only in international relations, but also within the country between various social subjects (economical, political, funds, and informal unions including organizations and unsocial and criminal groups), plus their influence on regulatory bodies and a system of state government. In this case, influence is used on information environment of the definite country and its separate elements – objects of information opposition.

INFORMATION WEAPONS. 1. Special means, technologies and data, which help to implement force influence on social information environment and result in considerable damage to political, defense, economical and other vital interests of the country.

Furthermore, forceful influence on information environment with application of information weapons means breach of normal functioning of social information infrastructure, rules of collecting, storage and distribution of information and information resources.

2. Means orientated at initiating and implementing of processes in information system, the subject that applies them is interested in them.

INFORMATION OPPOSITION OBJECTS. The basic elements of information environment are objects of information opposition (vide supra information environment and information sphere).

Information opposition objects are divided into two main groups according to the level of information influence on them.

The first group includes those objects that process information on the basis of functioning laws of people’s mind. Among them are individuals, different categories of population, personnel of armed forces, staff that work in the structure of the regulatory bodies and government, different regions, management and staff of different economic subjects, citizens of regions, city citizens, villagers, and etc. All of them can be as object targets for information and psychological operations while implementing definite tasks of information opposition.

The second group includes those objects that process information on the ground of functioning laws of the technical systems. They include information and telecommunication systems and database of regulatory bodies and military-industrial establishment; systems of forces and arms management; automatic systems of managing technological processes in the key industries of the federal state infrastructure and on the regional level (transport, energy, chemical and oil industry, water supply, telecommunication and network, banks, finances and others); similar and other information systems of different economic subjects, political organizations and funds, regions and cities, and so on. All of them can be as object targets for information operations while implementing definite tasks of information opposition.

INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL OPPOSITION. It is a segment of information opposition and its variety.

The criterion for separating it is specific information opposition objects that process information on the basis of functioning laws of individual’s mind and specific of applied means correspondingly (the definite information instrument), and peculiarity of tactics and strategy.

With the usage of this criterion a special group of definitions is allocated. They express a specific character of influence on information environment that is information-psychological and psychological warfare, information-psychological antagonism and psychological antagonism or psychological struggle; there is no difference between them and they are often used as synonyms. Psychological and information-psychological operations are applied as active complex organizational forms of their implementation.

Information-psychological and psychological operations are used with respect to such objects of information antagonism as military-political management, mechanism of working out and accepting of management decisions; a system of forming of public opinion; social environment and spiritual sphere, ideologies and mentality of people, and etc. Individuals and different categories of population, personnel of war forces, government executives or executives in the regions, management and party members, members of funds and movements, managers and executives of different economic subjects, financial structures, citizens of regions, towns or villagers and etc. – all of them could be targets for information-psychological operations when implementing definite goals of information-psychological antagonism.

So, information-psychological antagonism is an element and a sort of information antagonism, which appears in the form of psychological and information-psychological operations with the common usage of means and methods of information-psychological influence.

INFORMATION OPERATIONS. The common meaning of an operation (from Latin “operatio”- an action) is an activity aimed at achieving some goal or solution of the definite tasks. A specific character of operations is determined by a specific character of applied means (weapons) with respect to the objects of influence.

With reference to information sphere an operation (an information operation) means an organized form of information antagonism or a complex of agreed and interrelated activities of different subjects according to aims, tasks, time and place of action. These activities are carried out in accordance with the united intentions and the plan for achieving determined aims and planned tasks during the definite time period. That is succession of activities for application of the definite types of information weapons in the frameworks of worked out tactics and strategy of conducting information warfare.

Under this context there is no principal difference between the notions of “information warfare” and “information antagonism”. But at the same time some authors point out that information warfare is the peak of information antagonism.

A specific character of applied means during the information operations (the definite information weapons), and also peculiarities of a tactic and a strategy of information warfare depend on peculiarities of information opposition objects most of all (see above Information Opposition Objects).

Depending on a specific character of applied means (as a consequence of a specific character of influenced objects) information operations are divided into two main groups – information-technical and information-psychological or psychological (see above Information-Psychological Operations).

INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS. It is a sort of information operations (see above Information Operations).

An information-psychological operation is a complicated complex of measures of political, economical, organization-technical or other character in compliance with agreed aims, tasks, time, place and subjects. Besides it is a complex of intelligence (measures on collecting data) and propaganda activities aimed at implementing psychological influence on individuals and different categories of population, personnel of war forces, government executives or executives in the regions, management and party members, members of funds and movements changing their feelings, psychical condition, points of view, relations and behavior so that it would help to achieve goals which are beneficial for social subjects (individuals, groups of people, social funds, finance and economical structures and other structures, including foreign governments and transnational unities) in which interests these activities are employed.

Information-psychological operations and psychological operations are aimed at objects of information opposition such as: military-political management; mechanisms of working out and accepting management decisions; a system of forming public opinion; social environment and spiritual sphere, ideologies and mentality of people. Individuals and different categories of population, personnel of war forces, government executives or executives in the regions, management and party members, members of funds and movements, managers and executives of different economic subjects, financial structures, citizens of regions, towns or villagers and etc. – all of them could be targets for information-psychological operations when implementing definite goals of information-psychological antagonism.

Under definite conditions information-technical operations can be adhered to a structure of information-psychological operations. The notions of information-psychological operation and psychological operation are practically the same in their meaning and can be used as synonyms. The term of information-psychological operation points out the role of information component in its structure.

Some of the basic criteria for classification of information-psychological operations can be, for instance, a level and a composition of participants, a scale, time, a territory, length, objectives, subjects, objects, spheres (economical, political and others) and preferred means of influence.

Information-psychological operations in political struggle can structurally consist of three basic elements: activities of information publicity and information propaganda, demonstration actions, organized practical activity.

Information propaganda (information publicity) is carried out in the form of campaigns, activities or separate actions using mass media or direct contacts with various social groups, corresponding methods and influence measures which affect mentality of people are employed (for example, use of a technology of forming and spread of rumors and others).

The main difference of demonstration activities (actions and measures) from real practical activities is their orientation on being applied as means of psychological influence on people first of all, but not on achieving any results. Among these activities can be, for instance, a threat of employing some sanctions or measures on the definite persons or organizations; carrying out charitable activities during an election campaign; promoting and accepting valuable social programs (for example, Environment Protection Program, Commodity Producer Protection Program, Program on Poor Assistance) and others.

Demonstration activities differ from real practical activities because the former ones are used during the election campaign, apply for publicity in mass media, and frequently the planned objectives are not fulfilled, their fulfillment is postponed till the end of the election campaign.

Organized practical activities include measures and actions of supplying character aimed at psychological influence on definite individuals and groups of people or creation of conditions for enhancing influence and information-psychological operations in the whole or other various actions. Within this framework it is possible to divide organized practical activities into three main groups:

First, activities aimed at organizational, financial, material, technical and other provision of information propaganda (promotional) campaigns using mass media.

Second, activities aimed at implementation of demonstrations, supportive actions, meetings, and etc.

Third, activities aimed at handling different negotiations, applying for tycoons, providing financial and other support, lobbying interests and decisions in executive bodies and law bodies on various levels and etc. Modern political scientists define general organized forms of these activities as political games and lobbying.

Political games is a metaphoric definition of political maneuvering, intrigues, background agreements, deals, sealed intentions that are concealed by irreproachable political decisions.

Furthermore, some unaccepted means and measures both “on the edge of law” and unlawful can be employed. As a rule such activities are sealed thoroughly and are not publicized. But according to observation and analysis of political campaigns in modern Russia one can notice indications of carrying out such activities and in particular during some election campaigns. For instance, among them is blackmail, threats of physical or economical influence directed against both an adversary, and advocates or those who support the candidate. Special developed crisis operations can be employed using various means and measures in particular for economic competition.

INFORMATIION-PSYCHOLOGICAL SECURITY. Two approaches are used for defining information-psychological security. The former is both a state of secured information environment and a state of secured social objects, which reflect the different sides of this sophisticated political notion (see above security). In the broadest sense, the implementation of information-psychological security of social subjects is determined by parameters of information environment functioning. Social subjects participate in regulating and composing of information environment.

1. A position of secured information environment that provides interaction, vital activity and vital capacity, stable functioning and evolution of social subjects of different community levels, size, systemized structural and functional organization (from an individual to society in the whole).

2. A position of secured social subjects of different community levels, size, a systemized structural and functional organization (from an individual to society in the whole) from threats connected with influence of information factors (information environment, including information influence of various social subjects as its components) on mentality of people (on individual, group, and society psychology and consciousness).

The notion of information-psychological security can be applied to various social subjects – an individual, social groups, various organizational forms of units. In this sense, it has a definite specific character (see above information-psychological security of an individual, corporate security).

INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL INDIVIDUAL SECURITY. (The notion an individual is employed in its common meaning as a synonymous notion of a person as a subject of social behavior). 1. A state of the secured individual that provides its integrity as an active social subject and possibilities of evolution under conditions of information interaction of a person with various social subjects and environment. First of all, it is a possibility of composing and functioning of an adequate information orientated ground for individual’s social behavior (and in the whole vital activity in the society), besides, an adequate system of his or her subjective (personal, subjective-personal) relations to the environment and himself or herself during information interaction with various social subjects and information environment of the society.

PSYCHOLOGICAL (INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL) INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION. It is employed in two meanings. First, as a definite systemized structural unit, and second, as an activity that is a process of system functioning. 1. A system of social, social-psychological, individual-personal mechanisms, units and forms of behavior, which must provide information-psychological security of a person in the society as an individual and an active social subject, his or her psychological protection in terms of various information factors operation and under different information-communicative situations (see above Psychological Individual Security System). 2. Use of various means and measures for changing processes of information-psychological interaction of a person with different social subjects and information environment for preventing or neutralization of threatening factors that harm a person.

PSYCHOLOGICAL SELFDEFENSE (individual psychological defense of a person). It is employed in two meanings. First, as a definite systemized structural unit, and second, as an activity that is a process of system functioning.

1. A person uses various means and measures for changing processes of information-psychological interaction with different social subjects and information environment for preventing or neutralization of threatening factors that harm him or her.

2. A systemized hierarchic organized unit of individuals with a variety of components that has its own structure and possesses following basic functions: behavior regulation, organization of the information-communicative process of individual’s interaction, system complication of individual’s subjective attitude towards social reality, optimization of the process of its perception.

A structure of individual psychological protection (psychological self-defense) of the person includes stable, dynamic, and process components:

- as stable units can be separated a structure of algorithms of psychological self-defense, including objectives of studying influence acts aiming at revelation of features, means and methods of manipulating from the side of the influenced subject and information-communicative barriers. Their primary function would be so-called “filters” that neutralize or soften an effect of manipulating influence.

- Dynamic elements that organize a process of psychological individual self-defense have an ability of carrying out logic-psychological and reflexive analysis of manipulation influence acts.

PSYCHOLOGICAL (INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL) INDIVIDUAL PROTECTION SYSTEM. It is a sophisticated multilevel system of social, social-psychological and individual-personal mechanisms, units and forms of behavior. This system must provide information-psychological security of a person in the society as an individual and an active social subject, his or her psychological protection under influence of different information factors and different information-communicative situations. It includes three basic trends of its composing and functioning: 1) social (in terms of the society in the whole); 2) social-grouped (within the framework of different social groups and various forms of social organizations); 3) individual-personal.

At the social level psychological protection is implemented through regulating and organizing of information channels (a system of information distribution in the society) and distribution of means and measures, definite “algorithms” of information processing and evaluation during social interaction (from interpersonal communication to mass communication). At this level state and society are subjects of psychological individual protection through activity of definite social institutes (an educational system, a distribution system of sociocultural values, traditions, a system of law and morale regulation and so on).

At the social-grouped level psychological protection is implemented through distribution and use of internal group information flows and sources, and also for definite social groups and organizations specific means of interaction, information processing and evaluation (group norms, intentions, preferences of the definite communicators, regulation of rules and work procedures, interaction with external information resources, and so on).

At this level subjects of individual psychological protection are groups and organizations (a family, production structures, social, political, religious and other organizations and units).

At the individual-personal level psychological protection is implemented through composing a specific regulation system and a complex of security measures and algorithms of behavior, which build individual psychological protection.

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