SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - рубрика Languages and Linguistics
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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ГЛАВНАЯ > Журнал "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" > Рубрика "Languages and Linguistics"
Languages and Linguistics
Kirimov T.N. - Semiotic and linguo-stylistic aspects of the poems by H. Chergeyev “Listen to What the Dead Man Says!” and “Fate” c. 18-34


Abstract: This work examines the little-known facts from the life and creative heritage of one of most reputable Crimean Tatar populist poets of the XX century Hasan Chergeyev. For revealing the semantic and linguiso-stylistic peculiarities of his works, namely of the poems “Listen to What the Dead Man Says!” (“Eşit, mevta ne sevleyur!”, 1909) and “Fate” (“Taqdir”, 1917), the author carries out comparative typological, semiotic and textological analysis of the original texts. The strategic approaches towards depicting the authentic, dramatic episodes from life of the people and the clergy employed by the poet are analyzed. The phenomenon of the impact of the idea, theme and storyline upon the structure of his poems is revealed. Lateral thinking, specially selected methods for representation of life material turn the lyrist's poetic works into living canvases. They reflect the depth of inner emotional experiences of the title characters, reveal the natural flavor of ethnic language, and demonstrate the energy, power of his style. At the same time, the article outlines the prospects for studying publicistic activity during the prewar and wartime within the Crimean Tatar Soviet periodicals.
Polonskaya O.Y. - Metaphorical modeling of migration: based on materials of American mass media. c. 19-23


Abstract: This research is devoted to consideration of the metaphorical features of the representation of migration in the American press. The object of the study is a metaphorical representation of migrants and migration in the language of the United States media. The subject of this research is metaphorical models, structuring the concept “migration” in the language of American mass media. The goal of this paper is to study the features of metaphorical modeling of migration in the US political media discourse. The relevance of the study is substantiated by the lack of knowledge of the metaphorical representation of migration processes in modern media of America.This study is based on the cognitive approach, according to which metaphor is the most important phenomenon in comprehending the surrounding reality.The study of linguistic material and the description of metaphorical models made it possible to identify attitudes towards migrants at the present stage of development of American society.
Zhgun D. - Cases of asymmetry between semantic and pragmatic meanings in emotional and evaluative utterances (based on the analysis of English prose) c. 24-32


Abstract: The subject of this article is emotional and evaluative utterances in literary texts. The article briefly appraises the current research of emotions in linguistics, emphasizing their role in communication. The linguistic data is also reinforced by theories from psychology. The author thoroughly studies emotional and evaluative utterances that reveal asymmetry between the semantic and pragmatic meanings. Emotional and evaluative utterances are defined as utterances that express, imply or describe emotions, emotional states and reactions. Asymmetry is defined as the deviation from the norm as a byproduct of natural language functionality. Research methods include definition, semantic and pragmatic analyses of emotional and evaluative utterances, selected from English fiction by the continuous sampling method. The author comes to the conclusion that asymmetry occurs due to the subjective experience of emotions and linguistically manifests itself in reverse reactions and ambivalence. It has been revealed that true knowledge about emotion is context dependent, and it is the context that shows whether emotion is received as positive or negative.
Mel'dianova A.V., Pomerantsev S.V. - Functional peculiarities of complex sentences in English aviation texts c. 33-39


Abstract: This article is devoted to the peculiarities of functioning composite sentences in English aviation texts. The subject matter of this research is types of complex sentences in modern English and the means of connecting main and subordinate parts of these sentences. Research in the article is done on the basis of scientific and journalistic styles. Special attention is paid to the general characteristics of lexical and grammatical features of these two text styles. In the article, a comparative analysis of different types of subordinate clauses is made and difficulties in translating them from English into Russian are analyzed. In her research, Meldianova applies the following research methods: description used to define, interpret and classify complex sentences; and comparison used to analyze types of syndetic words and subordinating conjunctions in complex sentences. The novelty of this research consists in the conducted for the first time complex study of means of connecting sentences within a composite sentence on the basis of English aviation texts of scientific and journalistic styles.
Danilova V.A. - Ways of conveying ethnocultural lexicon in translation of the novel Eugene Onegin by A. S. Pushkin into Portuguese (on the materials of Dário Moreira de Castro Alves’ translation) c. 35-42


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ethnocultural lexicon in translation of A. S. Pushkin’s novel “Eugene Onegin” into Portuguese language. The author views the term realia as a lexicon with ethnocultural semantics, characteristic to a specific language community. The research is aimed at the analysis of the means of conveying realia in two non-cognate languages, as well as in determination of ethnocultural differences of the lexemes signifying similar notions. The author believes that understanding and accurate interpretation of culturally marked lexicon are essential for translating foreign literature, studying and teaching foreign languages. Methods of the research are contextual and comparative analysis of the Russian realia in translation, which allowed determining the distinctions in cognition of text among the Russian and Portuguese native speakers. The novelty of this work is defined by reference to the only translation of the novel “Eugene Onegin” into Portuguese language that has not previously been an object of a linguoculturological study. The research revealed that realia may contain cultural component in the meaning of words and their connotation. As a result, the author indicates the differences of linguistic means of conveying realia in the Russian and Portuguese languages, and established the ways of conveying ethnocultural lexicon in translation of the novel, such as correlation, hypo-hyperonymic translation, adaptation, periphrastic translation, and calquing.
Dolgenko A.N., Kosyreva M.S. - Language globalization and language globalistics c. 39-43


Abstract: The article analyzes the results of development of language globalization in the context of language globalistics. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors of globalization of the language, the reasons and circumstances of obtaining the status of the global English language. Special attention is paid to the concept of a global language network and subglobal languages in Internet communications. Perspectives of language globalization is presented in the context of language globalistics achievements. As a result of the analysis the authors came to the conclusion that the global English "users" are more important that "speakers" for language globalization. English as the main tool of Internet communication expands the composition of "users" of the global language. This will arise new challenges to linguistic globalistics.
Nesterkin S. - Philosophy of language and problem of expressiveness of the Absolute in Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism c. 42-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of expressiveness of the Absolute, developed in Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism. In majority of Buddhist schools it is established that the language, due to its binary nature, is capable of expressing only the relative truth, while the absolute truth can be cognized in the state of unidirectional meditative submersion, with the absence of any duality, including the linguistic symbolic structures. However, in Gelug School it is emphasized that it is impossible to explain an adept the technique of realization of direct vision of the absolute unless using the language, which also allows reaching enlightenment and further translation of the tradition. Based on the materials of Tibetan texts, the author explicates the philosophical views of Gelug School, which, according to the thought of its successors, eliminate such contradiction. The main conclusion consists in the fact the Gelug School developed the concept of language that subdivides the verbal/conceptual into two types. The first one  contains the verbal/conceptual, resulted from the ascription (Tibetan: sgro 'dogs) of false qualities of the objects of consideration, which should be obviated. The second one is deprived of false ascription, and forms in the course of using a specific type of philosophical discourse – prasangika, serving as the cause of emergence of the “middle view” (Tibetan: dbu lta) that sees all things properly. This allows the successor of prasangika to effectively use the verbal structures for adequate cognition at the conceptual level, and transition towards the direct cognition of the absolute truth, which ultimately helps to acquire freedom and reach a state of nirvana.
Vechkanova E. - Thematic progression and its reproduction in translation from English to Russian c. 43-50


Abstract:  This article is dedicated to studying thematic progression as a text-forming and discourse-forming phenomenon. The notion of thematic progression is analyzed in terms of the functional sentence perspective theory, theory of actual division of the sentence, and discourse linguistics. Thematic progression contributes to the cohesive development of discourse, distribution of given and new information that needs to follow certain patterns. That is why the article also dwells on the thematic progression patterns and peculiar characteristics of their themeatic-rhematic organization. Basic thematic progression patterns are: simple linear thematic progression, thematic progression with a continuous (constant) theme, thematic progression with derived themes and thematic progression with a split rheme. They are considered to be universal, peculiar to many languages. That is why thematic progression patterns of English discourse units translated into Russian language often remain the same. Their high informativity, grammatical complexity, as well as differences in grammatical systems of English and Russian languages, necessity to adapt these units to the norms and rules of the Russian language can cause changes in thematic progression patterns of the translated units. The abovementioned facts can also lead to compression / decompression of information, changes of the word order in Russian translations.
Zhgun D. - When emotions cannot “speak”: a pragmatic analysis of cases of alexithymia in English fiction c. 43-51


Abstract: The article focuses on the analysis of cases of alexithymia in English fiction in order to reveal their pragmatic potential. Alexithymia is studied from a linguistic perspective and is defined as the inability or difficulty to express emotions verbally. Emotions are viewed as a type of language identity that functions within specific ways to exchange communicative information. Emotions are recognized as social phenomena that are embedded in social contexts. The article strives to provide a novel insight into the study of emotions in the field of linguistics. For the first time, alexithymia is addressed not as a psychological disorder, but as a linguistic attempt to create and increase a pragmatic effect on the reader by implying additional information and emotional and evaluative overtones. Research methods include definition, semantic and pragmatic analyses of emotional and evaluative utterances, expressing or implying alexithymia, and selected from English fiction by the continuous sampling method. The author comes to the conclusion that emotions can still be revealed and comprehended by the reader without being expressed or implied in the text. It is the context that helps to determine the emotion, its intensity and polarity, as well as its pragmatic potential.
Kirichenko N.R. - Linguistic Manifestation of the concept of immigration in the English and American press c. 44-50


Abstract: This article is aimed at examination of the concept of immigration, conceptual metaphors of the cognominal concept, as well as their manifestations in the English and American press. The subject of this research is the language means that verbalizes the concept of immigration in the English and American consciousness. The object of this research is the concept of immigration. The analysis of the language material alongside the description of metaphorical models allowed determining the attitude to immigration at the current state of social development. The work is based on the method of continuous sampling of examples from the English and American periodicals. The concept of immigration is one of the key concepts of the modern political discourse. Its conceptual content is revealed in the article. The author determines and provides description to the three metaphorical models that represent the concept at hand, namely: anthropomorphic model, model of nature, and artifactual model. The analysis of factual material demonstrates that the highlighted metaphorical models have negative connotation.  
Rozin V.M. - Unaccustomed Chekhov (humanitarian study) c. 48-54


Abstract: The paper deals with the situation that has developed in recent years, which is written in the Internet, where memories and studies of life of the writers and poets are represented. A logical interpretation of the life and work of Anton Pavlovich Chekhov is offered, which makes it possible to compare the two relations between the creativity of the author and his ordinary life. Unaware of the evolution in the views of Anton Pavlovich and his ambivalent attitude towards women and love, revealed in such an interpretation, we really do not understand the actions and thoughts of the heroes of his works, especially the later stories and plays. The study used the following methodology: problem formulation, situational and comparative analysis, humanitarian interpretation of the author's works, reconstruction of the life path. As a result, it was possible to show that although the personality of the author of the work is not directly related to his work, nevertheless, in order to understand a number of significant moments of this work and the features of the work, a special reconstruction of the author's personality and his works is necessary. Within the framework of such a reconstruction, the analysis of personality and works must be linked.
Kirimov T.N. - Peculiarities of artistic thinking of Mehmet Nuzhet c. 51-59


Abstract: The goal of this work is determine the peculiarities and origins of artistic thinking of the Crimean Tatar writer of the XX century Mehmet Nuzhet. The methodological and theoretical framework of this research is comprised of the works of U. Ipchi, E. Shemizade, J. Bekirov, A. Altanly, I. Kerimov, Y. Kandymov and others. The aforementioned authors made an indisputable contribution to the development of Crimean Tatar literature and literary criticism. The artistic heritage of M. Nuzhet is diverse and unique. His poetic, prosaic and translation works are fused with national spirit. The actions and feelings of the protagonists of the artist’s lyrical works are a direct reflection of his psychological state. This article pays special attention to the psychological type of the lyricist. Using comparative, textual analysis, the author examines the published and original handwritten texts by M. Nuzhet. The conclusion is made that the writer systematically worked on the study of the depth feelings, emotions and ways their expression. The application of traditional folk poetic forms, genres, images allows creating the new patterns of influence upon the audience. Conveying the eternal anthropological topics, he transforms into a wise folk storyteller and preacher. For depicting the life realities, he disguises an old poor man or a street drunkard. Poetic alliterations and assonances enliven these images. In the process of declamation of such poems, the audience is captivated by the text and uses various mimic emotions intended by the context.
Razduyev A.V., Simonova E.A. - Specificity of term formation in the fields of Genetics and Genetic Engineering (based on the English, Spanish and Russian language materials) c. 65-75


Abstract: The subject of this research is the study of main derivational models of Genetics and Genetic Engineering terms in the English, Spanish and Russian languages. The object of this study is the terminological units, selected in a combined total of approximately six thousand units. In the course of the work, the authors examine in detail the origin of some genetic terms, as well as their key structural and word-formative features. The main frequently and occasionally used models of term formation are revealed. The research methodology includes the methods of continuous selection, comparative analysis, reconstruction of the structural-derivational models in the English, Spanish and Russian languages, as well as component and definitional analysis, etymological analysis, quantitative and statistical analysis. The main conclusion of the study is the quantitative predominance of multicomponent genetic terms formed by syntactic models. Frequently used syntactic models are represented by various combinations of nouns, adjectives and nouns, with the use of prepositions, with occasionally used models including participles, adverbs, etc. Morphological models are represented by suffixation and prefixation. Compounding, abbreviation and conversion are distinguished among the frequently used morphological-syntactic models. The derivational models may coincide or be different in the languages in question. The authors’ special contribution is the identification of these differences are drawn from the material of Genetics and Genetic Engineering terminology.
Lykova O. - The analysis of gender-specific peculiarities of insincerity c. 72-79


Abstract: The subject of the study is gender characteristics of insincere statements and behavior. The experimental material includes 100 video fragments in Russian and 100 video fragments in American English. The study of this material included perceptual-auditory and perceptual-visual types of analysis, which were conducted with the involvement of groups of test-auditors. The results of perceptual-auditory and perceptual-visual types of analysis revealed some gender differences in insincere statements and behavior. However, most of the parameter values noted by the subjects when working with the material are in the zone of average values, which makes the study of these parameters especially difficult and indicates the relevance of this problem. Processing such a data set (915,600 cells) was carried out for the first time, but it did not reveal major gender differences in the speech and behavior of communicants, which indicates the need for further study of this problem.
Bondareva E.P., Podgornaya E.A., Chistyakova G.V. - Virtual self-representations: the gender aspect c. 75-83


Abstract: The subject of this research is the gender analysis of the strategies and techniques, using which the visitors of the dating sites create unrestricted forms of self-representations. The authors clarify the notions of “communication strategy”, “speech strategy” and “communication tactic”, and “speech tactic”. The material for the research were the self-representations of men and women of 18 years of age and above, presented on the Russian and English language dating sites. As a unit of analysis the authors used a fragment of self-representation, which verbalized a certain strategy/tactic. Among the main conclusions of the conducted research are the discovered five universal verbal strategies characteristic for men and women, users of Russian and English languages: characteristics of the target of search, purpose of search, creation of the image of a desired situation, and direction towards communication. Each verbal strategy has a certain set of communicational and speech tactics. There were no major differences detected in the choice of verbal strategies and communication tactics that were characteristic to the speech of men and women of both languages.
Vishnevskaya L.A. - Specific nature of the existence of Adyghe vocal tradition: past and present c. 76-81


Abstract: The subject of this research is the oral and professional specific nature of the existence of Adyghe vocal tradition in the past and present. Life after life – this figurative way can characterize the modern state of the Adyghe vocal tradition. Published songs of the Adyghe ethnicity and sub-ethnicities (Circassians, Kabardians, Shapsugs etc.) are nowadays no more than a relic, a memorial, a musical chronicle of the history of the people and the object of scientific research. New conditions of living of the North Caucasus people of the late 20th – early 21st centuries have brought about the practice of the secondary folklore – the one that revives and develops the lost tradition on a new level. A vivid example of the rebirth of the tradition of vocal and instrumental performance is the oeuvre of the Adyghe folklore ensemble of authentic singing and instrumental music “Zhyu” (Adyghe Republic, Maikop). Basing on the characteristic features of singing practice in the past, its adaptive reserves in the modern Adyghe culture are singled out.
Sukhanova O.V., Larina T.V. - To the problem of system description of Russian-English lacunae belonging to different parts of speech c. 80-88


Abstract: The subject of this research is the nature of national specificity manifestation of the lacunae belonging to different parts of speech. The goal is to describe the thematic groups of Russian-English verbal, substantive and attributive lacunae relating to the military sphere. The system of formalized indexes is used to elucidate the national peculiarity. The novelty of this research consists in revealing and testing new formalized parameters within the groups of lacunae that have not been studied from such perspective. In the course of the research, the following methods were employed: the continuous sampling method from a lexicographical source, the quantitative analysis method, comparative analysis and comparative-parametric method of linguistic research. The theoretical importance of the research is defined by the fact that methods of comparative description received further amplification. The indexes are used to determine quantitative characteristics of national peculiarity. The results obtained can be utilized in practice of teaching professionally oriented translation, comparative typology of the Russian and English languages, and be used for further inter and intra-linguistic research. Through the prism of the indexes, conclusion about the degree of the groups’ national specificity is drawn.
Zhgun D. - Pragmatic potential of emotional utterances in literary texts c. 89-99


Abstract: The subject of the article is emotional utterances in literary texts. The research is aimed at revealing and studying the pragmatic potential of such utterances. Pragmatic potential is defined as additional information that needs to be decoded. A literary text has been chosen as the source of emotional utterances because it creates the circumstances for the fullest functional manifestation of their pragmatic potential. The author meticulously studies such linguistic means of expressing emotions as nomination, description, tropes and figures of speech. Research methods include definition, semantic and pragmatic analyses of linguistic means of expressing emotions, selected by the continuous sampling method. The processing of the factual material has also been performed by the method of contextual determination. The novelty of this research is substantiated by the combined approach to the analysis of emotional utterances and by revealing hidden meanings of both, expressed and implied emotions. The analysis has shown that emotional utterances provide better understanding of the speaker’s illocution, and that the intensity of illocution is influenced by the choice of linguistic means. The expression or implication of emotions intensifies the speaker’s intention and creates a stronger pragmatic effect. Furthermore, it has been determined that emotional utterances may perform several illocutionary acts, but it is context that reveals the true intention.
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