SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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> "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" > 01, 2013
"SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences"
: 1-6-2013
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ISSN: 1339-3057
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01, 2013
Philosophy
.. - The phenomenon of spirit in philosophical understanding of man

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.8932

: There is a widespread opinion that philosophical anthropology is a field of knowledge about the origin, history and content of culture. This statement is only partially true. Culture is demonstrative of a certain way of being. Many anthropologists and cultural scientists do not set themselves the task of finding out why man is as he is, what his existential reality is, or in what way his determined originality is manifested. Reduction of the whole problem of man to a description of culture would mean disregarding the principal side of the question: what determines the cultural essence of man? The integrity of philosophical anthropology distinguishes it from other disciplines that study man in one particular aspect. Philosophical anthropologists wish to grasp, at least, the wholeness of a person, his concrete I. Philosophical anthropology more decisively than, say, gestalt psychology finds in man configurations and behaviours that are impossible to split and put to the final analysis. Spirituality is undoubtedly among basic human existentials. The notion of spirit in philosophical anthropology has a long and peculiar history. Since time immemorial, freedom, reflection and spirit have been considered mans essential qualities. Spirit is mans highest ability that permits him to become a subject of meaning-setting, personal self-determination, conscious transformation of reality. We, people, are the present existence, consciousness in general and spirit, that is the idea-driven wholeness of comprehensible relationships in ourselves and in all that we have created, done and thought.
.. - THE EIGHT CHALLENGE OF MILLENNIUM? EMPTINESS IS MATTER The hypothesis of incompleteness of the principle of conservation of mass and energy

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.8971

: This article attempts to show incompleteness of the principle of conservation of mass and energy, on the basis of assumption of the recognition of two new for the science types of substance being of proposition and being of perception, based on the fact that emptiness is not nothingness (nothing), but something type of substance. The hypothesis proceeds also from the mutual transition of different types of matter: substances, fields and spaces, into one another in strictly defined conditions. We expect the recognition of emptiness as a type of matter to have far-reaching consequences for numerous sciences. Firstly, it legalizes in terms of natural scientific materialism, i.e. attaches legitimacy to the ideas of mass and energy extinction. This, however, does not mean transition of something into nothing, and by expanding conservation principle, we uphold the same position that matter does not disappear, but converses from one type into another emptiness. The recognition of emptiness by matter brings to the cardinal conclusions about the emergence of galaxies, black holes, stars and stellar substance from space (emptiness). The hypothesis of emergence of substance in the centre of galaxies receives another indirect confirmation.
.. - EIGHTH CHALLENGE OF THE MILLENNIUM? PART 2. Exhalation of Black Holes as Transition from Light Matter into Conditions of Non-Participation of Dark Matter (On the new philosophical categories of participation and non-participation)

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9486

: In that previous article, emptiness (space) was considered as a state of substance within which other substances are transformed matter and field. In turn, matter and field form from the emptiness (energy).In the present paper, we consider matter and field (the micro world, macro world and mega world) as existence in our world. Non-existence in our world is existence in another world, for example, dark matter and dark energy. This means that, possibly, the exhalation of black holes is a transition of existence and certainty of our light Universe into non-existence in the form of non-participation. However, this non-existence is a form of existence of dark matter and dark energy which do not participate in the processes of light matter. There is a window of interaction in the form of gravitation between light matter and dark matter. However, it is possible that there is another window the transformation of the matter-field of the light Universe into non-existence, that is, the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter is a state of non-participation with light matter that is, with our light Universe. And vice-versa. The existence of dark matter and dark energy, which are non-existence in our world, transform into existence in our light universe by birth of a matter-field of emptiness. This means that through the exhalation of black holes there is a permanent shrinking of the density of light matter, which at the same time increases the emergence of light matters/ matter-field in the center of the galaxy or through other means. We hope that this can be observed in light matter that is, in our Universe. The mass and energy of our light universe are both growing and shrinking simultaneously. We hope that this can be observed through scientific observation.To be a phenomenon within this Universe means to be in unity with its distinctness as manifestation and part of its distinctness. Every thing in this world is in interaction with other things, and in contact and out of contact. This is the general participation all things with each other in the processes of one another. Distinctness of this world in all its unlimited diverse manifestations, is only in this way, not any other way, another distinctness may be nothingness, the non-existence this world. The unity of this distinctness consist in that every thing, every object of this world may come into contact with any other thing.
History
.. - Why do we need history?

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9019

: People of the past are alive due to a special kind of social practice social memory. Modern psychology demonstrates sufficiently that no one can, on their own, have an adequate understanding of their social behaviour and way of thinking. However sincere his attempts to be the judge of himself, sooner or later he has to resort to somebody elses judgement and interpretation. This also holds true for the consciousness of nations, confessional communities, political and ideological movements. A historians belonging to some historiographic tradition or another, undoubtedly influences the character of his research. And to the same degree, a historians work is influenced by his individuality. Problems and methods of historical anthropology are not infrequently called the history of mentality. This is associated with the French School of Annals. The history of mentalities, however, can hardly pretend to have an autonomous status in the system of historical knowledge. We cannot foresee to what and how history will respond, but there is an old observation by social psychologists that social shifts begin in a form and depth that nobody expects. People of the Renaissance considered that history began with them, they imagined themselves to be pioneers, aware as they were that they were reviving antiquity. Tradition often seems irrelevant, a password for an archaic period and preposterous old times. But it is in tradition that infinite social experience is crystallized.
Anthropology
Omelchuk R.K. - Evolution of rationality: intellect and the intelligible truth

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9478

: The author examines value transformation of intellect and considers it in close interrelation of intellect with attainable truth. The paper specifies how intellect determines an object of cognition. The author argues that during the various periods of history of philosophy types of intellect have had specific ways of disclosure of the truth, determining priorities of personal self-identification. It is concluded that value transformation of intellect (buddhi, zhi, logos, reason, mens, ratio, intellect) is the basis of formation of modern scientific and technological civilization with its prudent-consumer attitude towards nature, society and a human. The paper will be of interest not only to philosophers, but also to all those who are interested in current problems of human being and cultural development of society.
Law
.. - Peculiarities of the initial investigation of human trafficking

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9383

: the article contains information about the initial investigation practices and peculiarities of the criminal case opening in russian law on matters related to human trafficking . The article draws attention to what is understood by the phase of initial investigation in criminal investigation. The author determines it as a quite independent segment in the work on a criminal case, during which, along with the general tasks, some specific and casual tasks are being solved, meaning the tasks related to the crime detection and investigation and which are characteristic of this particular phase in this investigation. Author gives a number of criminalistics recommendations on investigation of human trafficking; tackles practical peculiarities of investigatory actions and special investigation activities; consider several practical cases. Author also points out that currently human trafficking has become one of the most dangerous and widely spread crimes committed by the organized international criminal communities.
.., .. - Corruption prevention in state administration and civil service system in the Russian Federation

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9381

: the article views legal and organizational issues in corruption prevention in state administration and civil service system. The article calls attention to how most of the organizational and administrative issues cause corruption growth in the civil service system. As of today, we have to acknowledge that the existing legislative measures are not sufficient to prevent corruption, and in anticorruption policy we can see domination of the political factor and political orientation. These issues hinder the implementation of all existing legislative means aimed at corruption prevention.The question of corruption prevention throughout the activities of public au-thorities and state administration has acquired a global and systemwide character. Corruption is an immediate threat to the national safety. It hinders democratic and civil society institutions to develop; the citizens to realize their constitutional rights in the sphere of education, public healthcare, social maintenance and property relations. Besides, corruption has a negative impact on the growth of economic and financial sector and all infrastructure of the Russian state.
.., .. - Proceedings with Participation of Foreign Persons in International Procedural Law of Russia and Ukraine

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.8806

: This article is dedicated to one of the most interesting aspects of International Procedural Law litigation with participation of foreign persons. Authors focused on a comparative analysis of Russian and Ukrainian legislation concerning the regulation of international procedural relations. Article includes two paragraphs: the first one considers international jurisdiction of Russian arbitrazh courts and Ukrainian economic courts on commercial matters; the second one examines the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in commercial matters on the territory of Russia and Ukraine. Authors deeply scrutinized a wide range of legal documents including domestic legislation and international treaties embracing either bilateral Treaty between Russia and Ukraine on legal assistance and legal relations on civil, matrimonial and criminal matters, or multilateral international treaties of regional character in the framework of the CIS in order to show the convergences and divergences in Russian and Ukrainian law concerning participation of foreign persons in international commercial litigation.
Sociology
Kanasz T. - Emotion and Value Perspectives in Sociological Investigation of Happiness

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9367

: The aim of this paper is to counter the following statement: the criticism of sociology for not involving issues of happiness is not fully justified. In general, both in classical as well as in contemporary sociology happiness has been included into sociological research. However, knowledge on happiness and happiness related phenomena is disseminated into different subfields of sociology (e.g. sociology of health, sociology of everyday life, sociology of culture etc.).Therefore, the main idea of this article is to show different ways of exploring happiness in various fields of sociology. Basically, the concept of happiness can be understood as an emotion (with its various types), a value (or rather a set of values) or an idea of a good life. Happiness as an emotion is explored by sociology of emotions, sociology of health, sociology of everyday life. Sociology of culture deals with happiness as a set of values. The topic of happiness as an idea of a good life appears in sociology of social change as well as in other fields of sociology related to family, education, politics, culture and media.Happiness can also be accompanied with other notions such as optimism, satisfaction with life, hope, or success. Sociology of happiness and well-being has been developed on the interdisciplinary basis and has not excluded studies of ill-being.The author believes that today, in the rapidly changing world, there is a greater than ever need for reflection on happiness and well-being of individuals.
Economics
.. - Professional Ethics for Business Relations

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9454

: The article on professional ethics in business is partly review type and classifying different approaches. Classic and non-classic approaches in professional ethics are characterized. The influence of philosophical branches on the content of professional ethics is shown. This way of presenting material has been chosen by the author with the aim to emphasize the most problematic and difficult points in contemporary professional ethics, particularly accountants. Ethical considerations are psychologically grounded in some respects. The main notions of professional ethics are presented with the aim of concretisizing their content. The focuses for building professional ethics have been chosen: interaction of oppositions, social conditions of acceleration, creativity, emphasis of individual realization, respect. The most difficult problem has been pointed out: eternal moral stability and dynamic on-going of our life which demands the decision of a moment. Overwording in description of business relation is marked as a negative trait: all situations in professional ethics cant be described. The specific traits of accountantsprofession are underlined. Further prospects of discussing professional ethics are planned. The conclusions serve the respect of human labour and its quality.
.. - Economies of federal units of ex-YUGOSLAVIA after independence

DOI:
10.7256/1339-3057.2013.1.9006

: In present article the authors aim is to find out how Post Yugoslav countries could accelerate the past insufficient economic growth in order to achieve a real conversion to advanced economies, which is required for their accession to the EU. GDP growth rate is used as the main indicator for economic growth, complemented by other indicators of economic and social development. At the time of collapse in 1991, former Yugoslavia was among less developed European countries with unsustainable economic and social differences among its federal units. In the last twenty years, the economic and social differences among Post Yugoslav countries increased even further, partly due to different impact of military activities and partly due different degree of approximation to the EU. Improvements in utilization of existing factor endowments and creation of new factor endowments could accelerate growth of Post Yugoslav countries by 2022 (by two thirds compared to 2005), but not enough to enable their true real convergence, a precondition for the EU membership. Despite changes in status (independence), economic system (transition to private market economies) and economic environment (global financial crisis), growth rates in Post Yugoslav countries in the last 40 years remain at 3.3% on average. The author deeply scrutinizes the development level and disparities of federal units on the eve of collapse of Ex-Yugoslavia in 1990; analyses development of Post Yugoslav countries after their independence until today; gives reasons for a prediction of economic growth of Post Yugoslav countries in next decade until 2022.
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