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SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
Правильная ссылка на статью:

Humanism, punishment and surveillance. Criticism of M. Foucault's / Humanism, punishment and surveillance. Criticism of M. Foucault's

Даниленко Денис Васильевич

главный редактор журнала Сентенция, ООО «НБ-Медиа»

115114, г. Москва, Павелецкая набережная, дом 6А, офис 211

Danilenko Denis Vasil'evich

Editor-in- chief of "SENTENTIA. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES", LLC "NB-Media"

115114, Moscow, Paveletskaya nab., 6A, office 211

danilenko_d@mail.ru

DOI:

10.7256/1339-3057.2015.1.14410

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

07-02-2015


Дата публикации:

22-04-2015


Аннотация: Эта статья посвящена философскому исследованию о происхождении современного государственного контроля, наказания и, шире, эволюции современного уголовного права. Она представлена в виде дискуссии между автором этой статьи и Мишелем Фуко. Автор развивает идею, что гуманизм сыграл важную роль в смягчении санкционированного государством наказания и в развитии государственного надзора за последние 300 лет. В статье рассматриваются исторические корни современного государства и эволюции ее отношений с индивидами; развитие государственных функций; изменение уголовного права; права и свободы человека. Статья содержит критику анализа Мишеля Фуко эволюции современной системы уголовного права и его концепции надзора. Автор развивает идею, что основные права и свободы сыграли важную роль в ограничении власти государств а над индивидуумом, а также способствовали развитию контроля не только со стороны государства, но и со стороны частных структур. Отмечается что необходимость защиты прав человека привела к необходимости усиления контроля за индивидуумом.


Ключевые слова: Социальная философия, Мишель Фуко, современное право, уголовное право, государственные (правительственные) функции, наказание, наблюдение, гуманизм, права человека, свободы

Abstract: This article is devoted to philosophical research on the origins of modern state surveillance, punishment and, more generally, the evolution of modern criminal law. It is presented as a discussion between the author of this article and Michel Foucault. It develops the idea that humanism has played an important role in the softening of state-sanctioned punishment and in the development of state surveillance over the last 300 years. The article deals with the historical origins of the modern state and the evolution of its relations with the individual; the evolution of government functions; the evolution of criminal law; and human rights and freedoms. It contains a critique of Foucault’s analysis of the evolution of the modern system of criminal law and of his concept of surveillance.



Keywords:

punishment, state (government) functions, criminal law, modern law, Michel Foucault, Social philosophy, surveillance, humanism, human rights, freedoms

Библиография
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When considering this natural law, Locke used only the examples of the individual-individual property relations and not state-individual property relations
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References (transliterated)
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There is no better testimony to the fact that the monarch’s right over his subjects was tantamount to a property right that he or she exercised over them than the Magna Carta: “No Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right”. Indeed, words such as “destroyed” applying to individuals is a clear example that human beings at that time were no different from an object (article) whose existence in society was governed by the monarch’s property rights.
4.
The idea that criminal law reforms were created, and some of the human rights in the sphere of justice were established as a reaction to the sovereign’s abuses power is clearly expressed in the Habeas Corpus Act: “great delays have been used by sheriffs, gaolers and other officers, to whose custody any of the King's subjects have been committed for criminal or supposed criminal matters, in making returns of writs of habeas corpus to them directed, by standing out an alias and pluries habeas corpus, and sometimes more, and by other shifts to avoid their yielding obedience to such writs, contrary to their duty and the known laws of the land, whereby many of the King's subjects have been and hereafter may be long detained in prison, in such cases where by law they are bailable, to their great charges and vexation…”
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Art. 17 of the French Declaration confirms this statement: “Property being an inviolable and sacred right…”
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Babin, B.V. Proprietary right of the peoples in the modern international law, Mezhdunarodnoe pravo i mezhdunarodnye organizacii / International Law and International Organizations 3 (2013): 300 – 308; DOI: 10.7256/2226-6305.2013.3.9479
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The Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution express this idea aptly: “ …nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation”.
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When considering this natural law, Locke used only the examples of the individual-individual property relations and not state-individual property relations
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For example, a French decree of 18 March 1793 sanctioned any attempt to adopt a law that intended to strip landowners of their property. Such an act was punishable by death.
14.
Lyman J. L. The Metropolitan Police Act of 1829, J. Crim. L. Criminology & Police Sci., 55 (1964): 141
15.
Even today, there are examples of this in reverse: surveillance functions are transmitted back to the private sector. For example, modern fiscal evasion and fiscal fraud surveillance functions are partly exercised by the banking sector and by private financial institutions, and not exclusively by government agencies. The same is true for Internet-related service and product companies as well, which are often accused of collaborating with state security services and, especially, of transmitting personal data to those bodies.
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Durkheim E. De la division du travail social (PUF, 2013), 276
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Ibid. 284
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Ibid. 287
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Ibid. 284
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It is significant that in this chapter (“Le panoptisme”) – unlike other parts of his book – Foucault uses such words as “social” or “moral” a great deal.
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Durkheim E. De la division du travail social (PUF, 2013), 105
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38.
The welfare state’s values are also considered by some authors as social rights of citizenship (e.g. T.H. Marshall (1964) Citizenship and Social Class, q.v.). Nonetheless, a conception of social rights based on citizenship, concomitant with such phenomena as the emergence of social democracy which was achieved by extending political rights (especially the right to vote) to the majority of the population, is outdated. Indeed, today many welfare rights are claimable not only by citizens, but – with conditions – by every person (even foreigners). As a consequence, social rights today are more than mere rights of citizenship; they have become universal human rights.
39.
Nullmeier F., Kaufmann F.-X. Post-War Walefare Developement, in The Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State, (Oxford University Press 2012), 84
40.
Castles, op. cit. 6
41.
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42.
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43.
Ursul A.D., Ursul T.A. The Future of Humanity: Death or Immortality? Sociodinamika 3 (2013): 138-199; DOI: 10.7256/2306-0158.2013.3.478. URL: http://e-notabene.ru/pr/article_478.html
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