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Neurotechnologies in Geopolitics, Management, Economics during the Global crisis and hybrid Wars (Part 1) / Нейротехнологии в геополитике, управлении, экономике во время глобального кризиса и гибридных войн (часть 1) Neurotechnologies in Geopolitics, management, economy during the global crisis and hybrid wars (part 1)

Глущенко Валерий Владимирович

ORCID: 0000-0003-1324-9326

доктор технических наук

профессор, Центр проектной деятельности, Московский политехнический университет

107564, Россия, г. Москва, ул. Образцова, 9, оф. 1

Glushchenko Valeriy Vladimirovich

Doctor of Technical Science

Professor, Project Activity Center, Moscow Polytechnic University

107564, Russia, 1-Ya grazhdanskaya oblast', g. 1-Ya grazhdanskaya, ul. Obraztsova, 9, of. 1

glu-valery@yandex.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-7543.2022.2.38194

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

01-06-2022


Дата публикации:

21-06-2022


Аннотация: Предметом статьи являются методологические аспекты применения нейротехнологий в управлении, экономике и геополитике в условиях 9-го технологического уклада; объектом работы являются нейротехнологии в условиях 9-го технологического уклада; целью статьи является снижение геополитического риска в международных отношениях во время развития 9-го технологического уклада; актуальность статьи определяется развитием глобального кризиса и возможностью использования нейротехнологий в процессе геополитической конкуренции, дополнительную актуальность статье придает обострение геополитического кризиса, развитие методологии гибридных войн; нейротехнологии могут выступать структурным элементом гибридных войн; нейротехнологии могут оказывать влияние на психо-физическое состояние населения и лиц принимающих решения. Научная новизна работы определяется синтезом методологии управления геополитическими рисками в условиях глобального кризиса, основанной на разработке и практическом применении нейротехнологий в период 9-го технологического уклада. Для достижения поставленной цели решаются следующие задачи: вводится понятие и особенности геополитического риска; исследуется влияние геополитического риска на устойчивость развития 9-го технологического уклада; формируются методологические положения нейрогеополитики, изменение мировых порядков в их связи с технологическими паттернами; описывается эволюция военных методов в геополитике в процессе смены технологических укладов; формируется концепция управления геополитическим риском государства. Научными методами являются: исторический анализ; нейротехнологии; геополитика; политология; методология и философия науки, системный подход; эвристические методы; метод построения сценариев.


Ключевые слова: кризис, геополитика, нейротехнологии, миропорядок, война, конкуренция, риск, наука, экономика, менеджмент

Abstract: The subject of the article is methodological aspects of the application of neurotechnologies in management, economics and geopolitics in the conditions of the 9th technological order; the object of the work is neurotechnologies in the conditions of the 9th technological order; the purpose of the article is to reduce the geopolitical risk in international relations during the development of the 9th technological order. The relevance of the article is determined by the development of the global crisis and the possibility of using neurotechnologies in the process of geopolitical competition, the aggravation of the geopolitical crisis, the development of the methodology of hybrid wars gives additional relevance to the article; neurotechnologies can act as a structural element of hybrid wars; neurotechnologies can influence the psycho-physical state of the population and decision makers. The scientific novelty of the work is determined by the synthesis of management methodology geopolitical risks in the context of the global crisis, based on the development and practical application of neurotechnologies in the period of the 9th technological order. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved: the concept and features of geopolitical risk are introduced; the influence of geopolitical risk on the sustainability of the development of the 9th technological order is investigated; methodological provisions of neurogeopolitics are formed, changes in world orders in their connection with technological patterns (orders) are studied; the evolution of military methods in geopolitics in the process of changing technological patterns is described; the concept of managing the geopolitical risk of the state is formed. Scientific methods are: historical analysis; neurotechnology; geopolitics; political science; methodology and philosophy of science, a systematic approach; heuristic methods; method of constructing scenarios.



Keywords:

risk, competition, war, world order, neurotechnologies, geopolitics, crisis, the science, Economy, management

Introduction. The relevance of this article is due to the fact that in 2022 the geopolitical risks of socio-economic development are increasing. This increase in risks is associated with the deepening of the global crisis, which has moved into its geopolitical phase. It should be borne in mind that the aggravation of the geopolitical situation is associated with a number of factors: the growing contradictions between states; the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic; the formation of a new world order; the confrontational behavior of individual countries and others. This creates a high geopolitical risk of the processes of sustainable development of countries and the entire world community as a whole.

The hypothesis of this article is the statement that the formation of methodological provisions of neurogeopoliticology (neurogeopoliticology) can reduce the geopolitical risks of the state in the context of a global systemic crisis.

The purpose of the article is to reduce the geopolitical risk in international relations during the development of the 9th technological order.

To achieve this goal , the following tasks are solved:

- the concept is introduced and the features of geopolitical risk are studied;

- the influence of geopolitical risk on the sustainability of the development of the 9th technological order is investigated;

- methodological provisions of neurogeopoliticology (neurogeopoliticology) are being formed;

- the change of world orders in their connection with technological patterns is being studied;

- describes the change of military methods and tools in geopolitics with the change of technological patterns;

- the concept of managing the geopolitical risk of the state is being formed during the development of the 9th technological order.

The object of the work is neurogeopolitics in a situation of global systemic crisis.

The subject of the article is the methodological aspects of neurogeopolitics in the conditions of the 9th technological order.

First of all, it is necessary to justify the relevance of this article. To do this, you need to analyze scientific publications on the topic of this article. As is known, the global crisis began in 2008 [1, pp. 14-26]. This crisis is connected with the formation of a new technological order. Within the framework of the theory of technological orders, it is proved that in the period up to 2040, the following types of technologies will receive priority development: neurotechnologies; nanotechnologies; digitalization technologies; information, resource-saving, environmentally friendly and other technologies [2, pp. 65-82].

Scientists are actively studying the areas of practical application of neurotechnologies in real economic activity [3, pp. 191-193].

To create a technological platform for improving the quality of training of specialists in the field of neurotechnology [4, pp. 26-35].

Neurotechnologies are used to implement strategies for promoting consumer goods [5, pp. 109-113]. Experts express the opinion that the professions of the future are connected with the development of neurotechnologies [6, pp. 177-179]. It is believed that the development of neurotechnologies requires legal regulation of these technologies [7, pp. 502-521]. Researchers believe that the development of neurotechnologies is associated with the spread of the ideas of neurobiology [8, pp. 32-42]. Analysts are studying the possibility of using neurotechnologies in the field of social management [9, pp. 34-45]. Modern researchers consider neuroeconomics as a part of neurobiology [10, pp. 88-90]. Experts note the peculiarities of economic behavior of subjects in the conditions of neuroeconomics [11, pp. 54-65; 12, pp. 163-167].

Scientists study the features of the decision-making process in the context of neuroeconomics [13, pp. 103-109; 14, pp. 85-87].

One of the most dynamically developing areas of application of neurotechnologies in the economy is neuromarketing [15, pp. 346-350; 16, pp. 30; 17; 18, pp. 182-192].

Neurotechnologies can be considered as one of the directions of development of mechanical engineering [19, pp. 44-63].

Neurotechnologies are increasingly used in geopolitics [20, pp. 75-88; 21].

The development of neurotechnologies will affect management methods in the period of a new technological order [22, p.2].

New scientific and practical directions may arise, for example, neurogeopolitics may be developed [23, p. 54-63].

The introduction of neurotechnologies can be promising, for example, when studying operations [24, p. 2].

The influence of neurotechnologies on management decision-making processes will be studied in more detail [25, p. 2].

An important element of global governance is that at the beginning of the 21st century Zbigniew Brzezinski describes the imperatives of the leading subject of geopolitics [26, p. 2]. In the period of globalization, there is an increasing need to assess and manage geopolitical risks and other risks of organizations' activities [27, p. 11-18; 28, p.2].

An important object of research is the structure of the world order and its historical evolution [29; 30, pp. 3-29]. During the crisis, the importance of the theory of state and law increases [31, p. 2]. States should pay attention to strategic risk management [32, p. 34]. During the crisis, the possibility of developing neurotechnologies should be taken into account [33, pp. 45-57].

Scientists note that neurotechnologies can increase the efficiency of activities in a number of areas: neuromanagement can be useful in the management of a firm [34, p. 13-21]; in the personnel management of organizations [35, p. 149-154]; in the process of organization development [36, p. 92-94]; in the project activities of organizations [37, p. 25-33]; when managing the project team by forming neuro-leadership [38, pp. 102-104]; when conducting sociological research [39, pp. 43-52]; during the political struggle for votes [40, pp. 78-93]; for the formation of the personality of the manager [41, pp. 209-211]. Experts believe that a new reality is being observed in 2022, which leads to the formation of a new managerial thinking [42, pp. 107-117].

Neuromarketing technologies are most intensively used in the service sector in the 21st century [43, pp. 29-32]. The use of neuromarketing creates risks associated with the impact of these technologies on the subconscious of consumers [44, pp. 142-146]. Scientists believe that there is a risk of free will as a result of the use of neuromarketing technologies [45, pp. 658-672].

As a result of the analysis of scientific publications on the topic of this article, we can draw the following conclusion: the topic of this scientific article is relevant.

Method. The global crisis in the post-industrial world is accompanied by hybrid wars. In the course of hybrid wars, the problems of the formation of a new world order are being solved. Hybrid warfare has a complex structure that includes the following elements: diplomatic wars; information wars; currency wars; ideological opposition; scientific and technical competition; competition in the field of education; military operations; special operations and more. Neurotechnologies can be an important tool for influencing the psyche and behavior of the population, decision makers. At the same time, the development of neurotechnologies is one of the main directions of technological development in the period of the 9th technological order.

During the formation of a new technological order, neurotechnology is used in all new fields of activity (geopolitics, management, communications). During the geopolitical crisis, geopolitical risks increase dramatically. Due to the complex structure and process of the impact of geopolitical risk on socio-economic processes, a conceptual approach to the construction of a system of management of the geopolitical risk of the state's vital activity can be recommended.

Under the concept of managing the geopolitical risk of socio-economic development of the country, we will understand a systematic view of: the goals of managing geopolitical risk; a set of ways and tools to reduce this risk on the part of the subjects of its management (international organizations; society, business, government agencies, transnational corporations).

The formation of such a concept can be carried out within the framework of the risk theory of state and law. With such a conceptual approach, the state and law are understood as organizational tools for reducing the risks of life to practically acceptable values. If the geopolitical risks exceed the permissible limits, this may signal the loss of part of the sovereignty and/or control over part of the internal elements of the state (industries, regions).

The effectiveness of the concept of managing the geopolitical risk of socio-economic development will be defined as the ability of the risk management system formed on the basis of this concept to provide an acceptable level of such risk and its consequences.

The relevance of neuroeconomical, neurocrisisological, neurogeopolitological studies of anti-crisis management measures increases in a situation of ongoing crisis. It is necessary to take into account the growing international tensions. This tension is connected with the process of forming a new world order.

The prediction of the image of the future new world order was carried out in [1, p. 52-56; 2, p. 65-82]. The image of the future new world order includes the following elements: the system of geopolitical governance will have a distributed character both at the global and national levels; several states (geopolitical poles) will gradually stand out, which will form the core of the new world order; each of the geopolitical poles will form its own subsystems: military-political subsystems; legal subsystem; currency and credit subsystem; technological basis of activity; scientific system; educational system; cultural system and others. The national currencies of the states that have become poles of the new world order will become international means of payment [1, p. 52-56; 2, p. 65-82]. This trend is confirmed by real events taking place in geopolitics in 2022.

Such tension associated with the formation of a new world order may be the cause (source) of stress for those making such decisions. In turn, stress can be the reason for the possible inconsistency (paradoxical) of anti-crisis response measures. The presence of stress in international relations gives grounds to talk about the need to use neurotechnology methods in such studies. At the same time, the very development of neurotechnologies refers to the formation of a new 9th technological order.

Here are some examples of measures and management decisions that can be referred to as neuroeconomic, neurocrisisological and other solutions.

Example. No. 1. As you know, the President of the World Bank proposed (Financial Times, 8.11.2010) the idea of a partial return to the gold-cheap version of the gold standard. This supply may increase the demand for gold. The price of gold began to rise. However, the analysis within the framework of the development of the technological theory of money has shown the ineffectiveness of such a solution to the problem of stability of the banking system from the point of view of the sustainability of socio-economic development. It has been proven that the implementation of the proposal to return to the gold standard will lead to an increase in gold prices. After the publication of the results of the study, the price of gold went down. The proposal to return to the gold standard was not implemented. At the same time, the economic effect of such an anti-crisis scientific study of international monetary and credit relations (neuroeconomic analysis) can be estimated as the difference in the value of the entire volume of bank gold before the study and after such a study. We will take into account that the weight of bank gold in the world is at least 60,000 tons. The change in the price of gold was $ 700 per troy ounce: at the peak of this price, it was $ 1920 per troy ounce (summer 2011); the price of gold was $ 1200 per troy ounce (summer 2014) after the decline in the price of gold. To get the magnitude of the effect, multiply the change in the gold price of $700 per ounce by the number of ounces (31.4 grams) of gold worldwide. It is estimated that such an economic effect may amount to more than one trillion US dollars [12, pp. 250-254].

This indicates the high economic efficiency of the use of neurotechnologies in global and national governance.

Example No. 2. In 2020, in a situation of excessive oil supply, some oil-producing countries began to increase the production of this raw material. This led to a decline in oil prices and put not only segments of the oil industry on the brink of survival, but also the sustainability of the socio-economic development of oil exporting countries. Presumably, such decisions to increase oil production were made in a situation of increased stress? Crisis creates stress. And stress itself can be the cause of paradoxical management decisions, stock market crises, crises in international relations? It was only during the subsequent negotiations of the interested countries that oil production quotas were determined, which allowed oil prices to stabilize.

These examples indicate that it is necessary to talk about the use of neurotechnologies in management and neuroeconomics. At the same time, presumably in all the described situations, there was an additional increased geopolitical risk of socio-economic development of society, business, and the state. This suggests that neuro-economic, neuro-geopolitical methods can be effective primarily in studies of various kinds (including geopolitical) risks.

Consider the concept of "geopolitical risk". This concept was introduced into scientific circulation by the author of this article (Valery Vladimirovich Glushchenko) in 1999? Presumably, the first scientific definition of the concept of "geopolitical risk" was given in [13, pp. 46-47]? The concept of geopolitical risk was introduced into practical use relatively recently in 2006. And was this concept first introduced into practical use in the field of banking when justifying the decision on the key rate by the European Central Bank in the summer of 2006?

The geopolitical risk was understood as the possibility of deterioration of the geopolitical situation in the state for any of the possible reasons. The structure of geopolitical risk includes: the possibility of the country's conquest from the outside by other states; the possibility of the country's collapse under the influence of internal destructive forces; the possibility of lowering the degree of sovereignty; country risks (currency convertibility risks, transfer risks or payment moratorium). The essence and structural elements of geopolitical risk were described in [14, pp. 85-87]. At the same time, based on the results of monitoring the situation at the beginning of 2022, the geopolitical risk of the state can include: demographic risk; epidemiological risk. By demographic risk, we agree to understand the possibility of a significant reduction or outflow of population from the subject of geopolitics.

In 2022, the epidemiological risk is associated with the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, the epidemiological risk itself may include the following structural elements: a decrease in the population (demographic damage); the risk of a decrease in the quality of the workforce due to the long-term consequences of COVID-19; the risk of a decrease in business activity and, as a result, a decrease in gross domestic product; the risk of separatism of the country's regions due to violations of existing systemic relationships between different regions one country and/or different countries, the other.

In this article, it is proposed to develop, in addition to the well-known neuromarketing, neuroeconomics, a new scientific direction in crisis (neurocrisisology) and two new scientific directions in geopolitics, namely neurogeopolitics and neurogeopoliticology (neurogeopoliticology).

The main scientific and practical problem of all neuro-disciplines can be considered the reduction of the geopolitical risk of the development of states.

Geopolitical risk refers to fundamental risks. Fundamental risk is a risk that is beyond the control of one person or a group of people. The geopolitical risk is characterized by huge damages. From the point of view of business activity, geopolitical risk is a force majeure circumstance.

There are two points of view on the possibility of managing geopolitical risk: fundamental geopolitical risk cannot be managed. With this approach, geopolitical risk is defined as force majeure for enterprises and individuals.

With the second approach, it is believed that the geopolitical risk can be managed. However, such management requires adequate in scale and degree of intensity of the impact of subjects of geopolitical management.

Usually, geopolitical risk is referred to as "pure" risks". Pure risks are called as a result of which only damages and losses are possible. But the practice of geopolitical governance (for example, in Japan and Germany after 1945 or China at the end of the 20th century) has shown the possibility of positive results. Therefore, the management of geopolitical risk can also create a chance for the formation of a country's geopolitical leadership. These examples (Japan, Germany, China and others) allow us to classify geopolitical risk as speculative risks.

Speculative risk contains the possibility of a positive deviation (chance).

In 2022, 177 countries of the world are covered by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. This pandemic is taking place against the backdrop of a crisis in international relations. This crisis of international relations has: a global character, since most countries are included in it; the crisis has a systemic character, which means that it covers all aspects of the activities of states and international relations; the crisis has a geopolitical character-it covers the sphere of international relations.

At the same time, the observed pandemic can be viewed from at least two points of view: one of the reflections of the global systemic crisis; part (structural element) of the country's geopolitical risk.

The analysis shows that the reason for the rapid global development of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic may be: excessive openness of countries in the context of globalization; insufficient (for rapid localization of the pandemic) effectiveness of global, regional and/or individual national subsystems of anti-epidemic protection of the population. At the same time, the development of a pandemic reduces the consumption of all types of resources. Further, there is a drop in demand in all types of global markets, including the markets of metals, oil and petroleum products and others. Thus, the reduction of consumption is fraught with further preservation and even development of the crisis socio-economic situation.

It can be noted that it is possible to use the scenario method to predict the geopolitical situation. So Zbigniew Brzezinski in the early 2000s described a forecast scenario for the development of the situation in the post-Soviet space. Reality has confirmed the effectiveness of such forecasting and Brzezinski's methodological approach in forecasting the geopolitical situation [26, p.139]. It is likely that the method of constructing predictive scenarios can also be effective in studying the situation generated by the pandemic under study. In addition, the proposal to carry out a strategic assessment of geopolitical risk can also be practically used [27, p. 11-18]. Based on this analysis, it is possible to develop the concept of managing geopolitical and/or epidemiological risk.

The analysis of scientific publications on the topic of this article shows that the task of practically effective scientific scenario or other forecasting and justification of anti-crisis measures is actively solved by the expert community. It should be remembered that with a decrease in the effectiveness of planning and forecasting, the probability of paradoxical anti-crisis solutions may increase. At the same time, the accuracy of forecast strategic results and estimates of the effectiveness of implemented anti-crisis solutions may decrease.

In 2022, it can be argued that in the context of globalization, the global "financial fragility" of the world economy is really increasing. The author of the term "fragility" is Hyman Minsky [28, p. 92]. This situation generates an increase in the degree of "fragility" of the existing world order. All this can reduce the sustainability of the socio-economic development of society, business, and states. This further confirms the high relevance of scientific research in the field of neurocrisisology (neurogeopoliticology, neurogeopolitics, etc.).

By analogy with neuroeconomics, neurogeopolitics will denote a scientific discipline that studies: methods of measuring stress; game approaches in activity; methods of decision-making in a crisis. Including the possibility of making paradoxical geopolitical decisions in conditions of uncertainty, lack of information, counteraction of a reasonable opponent, stock market shocks and acute crisis, etc.

Neurogeopolitics, considered as a part of political science, can perform the following functions: cognitive, predictive, instrumental, managerial and other functions. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the neurogeopolitical scope of application and/or the specifics of the implementation of solutions.

The sphere of interests of neurogeopolitics can be considered: situations associated with a high level of stress of persons making geopolitical decisions; decision-making in a geopolitical conflict; decision-making in a situation of a geopolitical game (the struggle of reasonable geopolitical opponents); decisions in stock market crashes and panic; situations when blocking the activities of international institutions and much more.

The main practical task of neurogeopolitics should be called the reduction of geopolitical risk in the areas of application of neurogeopolitics. At the same time, neurogeopolitics acts as a methodological tool for managing the solution of this key task of neurogeopolitics.

Methodological tools of neurogeopolitics can be: methods of collecting and processing information; presentation of information; analysis, diagnostics; synthesis and forecast; planning, organization, motivation and control; goal setting, neuromarketing, neuromanagement and others. The use of management neuromarketing methods in geopolitical activities, including the possibility of using technical means and professional skills of profilers and other specialists within the framework of the geopolitical activities of the subjects involved in it, can also be attributed to the field of neurogeopolitics [20, pp. 75-88].

At the same time, for the effective development and selection of optimal methods and tools in the field of neuro-geopolitics, it is necessary to develop neuro-geo-politics. The need for the formation of such a scientific discipline is due to the fact that the methodology of science asserts that the most effective scientific knowledge with maximum predictive capabilities has the form of a general (complete) scientific theory. Such a general theory in the field of geopolitics in 2022 is at the beginning of its development. In this work, it was proposed to call the general theory (science) geopolitikologija – geopoliticology On the world order [20, pp. 75-88; 23, pp. 54-63].

The world order in this article is understood as a system of major international organizations and institutions (geopolitical relations), which includes, among other things, a mechanism for resolving geopolitical conflicts and global crisis management.

Neurogeopoliticology can be considered as a structural element of geopoliticology. When developing neurogeopoliticology, it is recommended to take into account the cause of globalization. For a long time, the causes of globalization have not been revealed in science. But then the "innovative hypothesis of globalization" was substantiated (the author of this hypothesis is Valery V. Glushchenko). Within the framework of the innovation hypothesis of globalization, it is argued that the process of globalization of socio-economic life is influenced by the growth of resource intensity of innovations: a global market is needed to pay off resource-intensive innovations. This is included in the content of the innovative hypothesis of globalization, which was described in [28, p.61]. At the same time, it is recommended to take into account that the complication of international geopolitical relations of states continues. Against this background, experts record a decrease in the effectiveness of international legal institutions and organizations. And at the same time, the need to increase the effectiveness of managing geopolitical risks of socio-economic development is also increasing.

This increases the relevance of the synthesis of innovative systems and methods of managing geopolitical risks. Such an innovative method of managing geopolitical risks in the work is: neurocrisisology, which deals with crisis management; neurogeopolitics - an innovative method of managing geopolitical risk; neurogeopoliticology, considered as an innovative method in managing the method of solving geopolitical problems. It should be noted that the neurogeopoliticology formed here is the scientific basis for managing the method of solving geopolitical problems. In management theory, such tasks are usually referred to as second-order management tasks.

For further development of the methodology of neurogeopoliticology as a separate scientific discipline, it is necessary to describe its object, subject, functions and roles by analogy with the work [20, pp. 75-88; 23, pp. 54-63]. The object of neurogeopoliticology (as a scientific discipline) can be considered the states of: acute geopolitical competition; acute forms of crisis; transitional processes in the formation of a new world order. Its subject can be methods and tools for studying, analyzing, forecasting, and managing neuro-geopolitical situations.

Neurogeopoliticology (as part of geopoliticology) explores: management of geopolitical processes; geopolitical risks of states. It is formed as an integral system of theoretical and applied knowledge about objects, subjects, tools of geopolitical management, management of geopolitical risks, assessment of the impact of such risks on all aspects of human life and activity.

The scientific method of neurogeopoliticology (as the science of the world order and global governance) is a system of principles and techniques by which objective knowledge of geopolitical processes and associated geopolitical risks is achieved. The method of neurogeopoliticology will be called a set of principles and techniques, with the use of which the reduction of uncertainty, objective knowledge of the world order and geopolitical processes is ensured.

The function of neurogeopoliticology in the field of philosophical and ideological justification of the formation of a new world order and a new system of global governance is to develop the wisest and most general view of the world order, geopolitics, and geopolitical risk. Such a philosophy of the new world order should answer a number of such important questions: in what conditions is the new world order being formed; what is the mission of the new world order; description of the vision of the development of the new world order and others?

The ideology of the world order includes a description: 1) the main idea of geopolitical development, including a set of views on the emergence and progress of the main ideas (theories), the functioning of the world order; 2) the way global power is distributed during the process of making changes in the world order.

The policy of forming a new world order and transforming the system of global governance can be synthesized on the basis of the philosophy and ideology of this order. The development policy of the new world order is a system of measures to implement systemic changes in the world order. At the same time, geopolitics represents the aggregate (integral) will of global and national elites in the form of norms of international law and/or a set of international and/or national legal and/or management programs and measures. In the policy of creating a new world order, one can distinguish a consensus approach (mutual consent of stakeholders) and a confrontational approach (struggle of the subjects of the process) for the definition and content of such a policy.

In neurogeopolitics, its methodological function covers the synthesis and development of scientific foundations, methodology for studying the external and internal environment of subjects of geopolitics, methods of making geopolitical decisions by these subjects.

In neurogeopolitics, its cognitive function includes: the processes of obtaining information; systematization of the information received; the study of the facts of reality. All this concerns facts characteristic of the existing world order and/or crisis, generating conflicts, stresses, situations that go beyond the existing norms.

In neurogeopolitics, its instrumental (regulatory) function has a practical orientation and consists in developing practical recommendations for subjects of geopolitics in situations of: high stress of subjects; the likelihood of illogical and/or paradoxical behavior of individual subjects of geopolitics; competitive gaming situations and others.

In neurogeopolitics, its predictive function is aimed at: synthesis of predictive models; development of tools and methods for assessing the probabilistic characteristics of the competitive position of states; probabilistic assessment of the future state of global and/or national socio-economic systems, assessment of the state and factors of the world order.

In neurogeopolitics, its normative (law-making) function is focused on improving the effectiveness of individual norms and/or the system of international law.

In neurogeopolitics, its ideological and educational (ideological) function includes the creation of certain global values, civic ideals, norms underlying the development of the existing world order.

In neurogeopolitics, its preventive function is aimed at: studying the sources of geopolitical risk; assessing these risks; reducing damage to subjects of the world order.

In neurogeopolitics, its function of knowledge socialization combines the preparation of knowledge and the dissemination in society of knowledge about the world order, geopolitical processes and/or risks in society.

In neurogeopolitics, its psychological function is aimed at the perception and perception of neurogeopolitics as: a real factor of the geopolitical process in a crisis; a factor of business processes, a factor of human existence and thinking in the context of modern globalization; methodology for assessing geopolitical risks; methods of research development, methods in neurogeopolitics.

Neurogeopoliticology performs the following roles: improving the effectiveness of anti-crisis management; reducing the geopolitical risks of sustainable socio-economic development of states.

The laws of neurogeopoliticology will be described as follows:

1) due to the growing complexity of the world order, the process of interaction between states, the role of neurogeopolitics will increase;

2) the global geopolitical crisis leads to an increase in emergency situations, stress of subjects, increased competition, and, consequently, the importance of methods of neurogeopolitics;

3) the global crisis is associated with a change in: the technological basis of the world economy; management methods; world order and other;

4) the change of the new world order reflects the process of formation of a new technological order in the economy and society;

5) the aggravation of the global crisis generates new neuro-political situations (currency wars; oil wars; hybrid wars; stock market crises; global epidemics, etc.);

6) geopolitical competition is permanent and universal, and situations of acute geopolitical competition should be studied from the point of view of a neuro-geo-political approach;

7) neurogeopolitical factors can be a significant source of geopolitical risk of the state and others.

The world order is connected with the technological order and cultural characteristics of a particular stage of the development of civilization. The system connection of technological orders and world orders is reflected in Table No. 1.

Table No. 1 System analysis of the content of world orders in the process of changing technological order

п/п

Properties of technological orders

/number of the order, names

of technological orders, time period

Market transactions, type of money;

international monetary system

World order, socio-economic formation; types of management systems

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

1

The first technological order; the time period from 5500 BC to 2000 BC; the invention of the sail;

Local market; Barter transactions-direct exchange of goods between their producers, the use of commodity equivalents; the absence of a global currency system

communal-tribal system; communities; principalities; slavery; kingdoms; intuitive management

2

The second technological order;

time period 2000 BC –

9th century AD; horse traction;

regional market, barter; individual goods (grain, cattle, furs) - regional equivalents in exchanges; money changers and moneylenders; absence of a global currency system

slavery; feudalism; communities; principalities; kingdoms, empires; intuitive management

33.

The third technological order;

Time period 9th century-1770; Windmill, watermill;

national market; gold money; money changers and usurers; receipts and bills of exchange; monasteries as gold storages; national monetary system;

feudalism; principalities; kingdoms; continental empires; world order - free geopolitical competition of empires

44.

The fourth technological order; Time period 1770-1830; Textile machines;

National gold currencies; paper money; central and commercial banks; stock exchanges; securities; absence of a global currency system

capitalism; monarchies; development of maritime empires; competition of maritime empires in the global water space; intuitive management

55.

The fifth technological order; Time period 1830-1880; steam engine;

global market; gold national currencies; paper money; Paris International Monetary System,

competition of land and sea empires; form of state-monarchy; capitalism; world order based on bilateral agreements between empires; intuitive management (management as an art)

66.

The "sixth technological order; Time period 1880-1930; internal combustion engine and electric motor;

Genoese gold-motto system; three international currency blocks; credit money;

Capitalism; imperialism; nation-states; republican-state form; disintegration of empires; scientific management (administrative school)

77.

The Seventh technological order;

Time period 1930-1970; nuclear reactor, electronic computers;

leasing; franchising; Bretton Woods International Monetary System; mottos and gold; creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank; credit money; gold and mottos,

United Nations (UN), States, Two military-political blocs of States (NATO, Warsaw Pact), bipolar world; development of strategic management

88.

The eighth technological order;

Time period 1970-2010; microelectronics and microprocessors;

online trading; global online market; Jamaican International Monetary System; demonetization of gold; Special Drawing Rights (SDR, SDR); SWIFT (Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications); electronic and digital money;

socio-economic globalization; states; trade and economic blocs of states; military-political blocs of states; Global unipolar world, post-industrial society; matrix control systems; participatory management

99.

The ninth technological order;

Time period 2010-2040;

neurotechnologies, nanotechnologies, information technologies, digitalization, resource conservation;

global electronic trading systems; growth in the number of international national currencies; international cryptocurrency systems;

Cryptocurrencies; electronic money, digital money;

Post-industrial society; The process of decentralization of the global unipolar world; States; trade and economic blocs of states; distributed management system; neurotechnological management;

Source: developed by the author

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Рецензируемая статья представляет собой первую часть обширной работы, посвящённой роли «нейротехнологий» в геополитике, теории и практике управления и в регулировании экономических процессов в современной ситуации, которая видится автором как эпоха «глобального кризиса и гибридных войн». Если принятое автором понимание современности является весьма распространённым, причём оно даёт о себе знать не только в научной литературе, но и в публицистике, то использование в этой связи подхода, определяющего в качестве базового понятия «нейротехнологии» следует рассматривать в качестве оригинального вклада в поиск путей анализа современной кризисной ситуации. Автор разрабатывает концепцию, согласно которой осмысление методологических оснований «нейрогеополитики» способно «снизить геополитические риски государства в условиях глобального системного кризиса». Следует отметить, что в статье хорошо разработан научный аппарат, в частности, весьма обстоятельно определяются задачи исследования (изучение особенностей геополитических рисков, их влияния на различные технологические уклады, определение основных методологических положений «нейрогеополитики» и т.д.), что позволяет читателю следить за изложением и проверять, соответствует ли содержание статьи заявленной цели, и обосновывает ли автор в достаточной степени выдвинутую гипотезу. Несомненно, с автором следует согласиться в том, что и его собственные исследования в данной области, и те работы отечественных авторов, на которые он ссылается, обладают высокой степенью актуальности. «Нейротехнологии», как справедливо утверждается в статье (наряду с нанотехнологиями, технологиями цифровизации, информационными, ресурсосберегающими, экологически чистыми технологиями), определяют облик нового технологического уклада, и, соответственно, анализ текущего кризиса невозможен без их учёта. Наряду с использованием их во многих практических сферах уже в наши дни, автор утверждает, что уже имеются и будут расти возможности использования их в области социального управления, что способно принципиально повлиять на характер социальных отношений. Кроме того, автор указывает и на перспективы широкого использования «нейротехнологий» в геополитике, что, по его мнению, можно заметить уже в наши дни. Важно отметить, что автор указывает как на неизбежность использования «нейротехнологий» в социальной практике, так и на связанные с этими процессами опасности, поскольку они «могут стать важным инструментом воздействия на психику и поведение населения и лиц, принимающих решения»; в то же время развитие нейротехнологий является одним из основных направлений технологического развития в период девятого (то есть сегодняшнего в понимании автора, - рецензент) технологического уклада». Обострение кризисных явлений, которое происходит на наших глазах, лишь подтверждает актуальность обращения автора к исследованию нейроэкономических, нейрокризисологических, нейрогеополитических составляющих тех антикризисных мер, которые необходимо принимать в условиях «формирования нового мирового порядка». Думается с большинством конкретных суждений и оценок автора следует согласиться. Они основаны на многочисленных исследованиях отечественных авторов, правда, в этой связи у читателя возникает и вопрос, в какой степени исследования в области «нейрогеополитики» представлены в зарубежной научной литературе. Этот вопрос оказывается тем более закономерным, что статья представлена на английском языке, и для зарубежного читателя важно знать, на основании каких англоязычных источников могут быть проиллюстрированы и обоснованы предлагаемые в статье идеи. Кроме того, в некоторых частях статьи (например, в описании технологических укладов) трудно говорить об оригинальности представленного автором материала, думается, объём статьи мог бы быть сокращён за счёт изъятия подобных фрагментов. Тем не менее, рецензируемая статья в целом соответствует требованиям, предъявляемым к современным публикациям, имеются основания рекомендовать её к печати.
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