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The poem
Шпаковский Вячеслав Олегович

кандидат исторических наук

доцент, кафедра Коммуникационный менеджмент, Пензенский государственный университет

440061, Россия, Пензенская область, г. Пенза, ул. Дзержинского, 35 - 43

Shpakovskii Vyacheslav Olegovich

PhD in History

associate professor of the Department of Communication Management at Penza State University

440061, Russia, Penzenskaya oblast', g. Penza, ul. Dzerzhinskogo, 35 - 43

slavashpak1@mail.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

Аннотация.

The article concerns the study of the poem "Shah-Nameh" as a source of weapons experts English-speaking historians. English-speaking historians unanimously agreed that horse armor had Byzantine and Iran, and the Arab, and Chinese riders, and at a time when Europeans of this entire have not even dreamed of. At the same time, the design of social institutions of chivalry associated with huge costs for weapons and armor, and hence the relevant land holding, making the identity not only a means to combat and defense, but pulls together Eurasian know even externally, that is reflected in the European and Eastern heraldry.

Ключевые слова: poem, chivalry, East, West, chain mail, heraldic emblem, knighthood armament, plates armour, crossbow, bow

DOI:

10.7256/2306-420X.2013.4.203

Дата направления в редакцию:

19-10-2019


Дата рецензирования:

19-10-2019


Дата публикации:

1-8-2013


Abstract.

The article concerns the study of the poem "Shah-Nameh" as a source of knighthood weapons studied by English-speaking historians. English-speaking historians unanimously agreed that horse armour had Byzantine and Iran, and the Arab, and Chinese riders, and at the time when Europeans  did not even dream of it. At the same time, the design of social institutions of chivalry is associated with huge costs of weapons and armour, and hence the relevant system of land holding.  This is reflected in the European and Eastern heraldry.

Keywords:

the Poem, chivalry, East, West, chain mail, heraldic emblem, chivalry armour, plate armour, crossbow, bow

In his book "Knights Outremer" famous British historian D. Nicolle notes that knights of "Lower Lands" returned to Europe after his expulsion from Syria and Palestine, bringing with them the fashion of an Eastern wealth clothing and equipment, which at the beginning of the XIII century perceived by Europeans as granted.

At the same time, the eastern version of the "era of mail" and mail-plate armor was quite different from the West. Thus, R. Robinson, referring to the bas-relief figures Shah Khosrov II (620), notes that the up and down was completely dressed in chain armor, chain mail, and just as well have been protected the head, neck and chest of his horse.

Image of a rider with a coat of armor from the fortress Mug near Samarkand partially preserved on a fragment of a wooden board. It can be seen in the form of armor long-skirted coat with tight-fitting shoulder straps and enclosed in Pants forearms leave open both hands.

D. Nicolle, based on the frescoes of Penjikent in Central Asia found that the armor of warriors depicted there as armor riders described in the famous poem by Ferdowsi "Shah-Nameh" and related to the end - early XI centuries. In fact no different from that in Western Europe there were four centuries later.

He also stresses that the Sogdians this era was known several types of plate armor, one of which, apparently, due to the width of its component plates, called "the palm width", which is confirmed by other beautiful images Penjikent.

An interesting detail concerns the insignia of soldiers. Those of them who are equally good shot the bow both forward and back, strengthen allowed two feathers on the helmet. This kind of helmet-mounted ornaments we meet much later in Europe. Though, regardless of the success of their owner in archery.

The presence of heavily armed horsemen IX - XI centuries in the armor of metal plates are also found in states of the Arab Caliphate. And this time, modern poets have described it as "consisting of a set of mirrors," and Arab historians - that he looks "like a Byzantine," both men and horses were dressed in armor made of metal plates, which, when well polished, brightly in the sunlight.

Thus, the Middle East and Arabia in the period from VII to XI century could boast of having just two sets of protective arms - chain and plate used by almost parallel. At the same time, R. Robinson notes that for a number of periods of illustrative material are missing because of»wild» first Turkish invasions, and then the devastation of Mongol invaders.

To one of the first noteworthy sources, including illustrative manuscripts, R. Robinson identifies "the history of the world," Rashid al-Din, made in Tabriz in 1306 - 1312 years.

The warrior depicted in its miniatures, wearing long scaly armor with a multi-colored pattern, which is formed by the alternation of ornamental plates and lacquered leather scales decorated embossed pattern. Helmets - "circular" with a prominent central decorative edge, and the brow of them are often further enhanced with a metal plate. Leather, mail, or quilted hear protection falls on chain-mail shirt, and in the central and southern Persia, in his opinion, purely Mail armor prevailed.

Persian soldiers, for example, even wore raincoats zarih Mail-Bektas, and together with them also wore armor of iron plates covered with velvet, essentially similar to the European brigandine. Protect horses from quilted cotton blankets.

At the beginning of the fourteenth century miniatures also shows the soldiers, usually dressed in scaly armor, and by the simple form helmets attached barmitsa mail. Helmets themselves low, rounded and tapered, and sometimes portrayed headphones. Most helmets serving of spines or tube, though plumes are not used.

At the end of the fourteenth century - the beginning of the XV century protective equipment for hands becomes tubular Shield consisting of two interlocking plates, conically converging to the brush. The most vulnerable part of the body of the rider - legs - protects the individual plates and knee type caps; they drag a chain mail, or embed in a woven base that covered the thigh (called ranapan). Feet shod in boots with shin and calf closed tubular shape greaves of two plates connected by hinges, which can be seen on a number of miniatures of the first third of the XV century.

In his book "Knights Outremer" famous British historian D. Nicolle notes that knights of "Lower Lands" returned to Europe after his expulsion from Syria and Palestine, bringing with them the fashion of an Eastern wealth clothing and equipment, which at the beginning of the XIII century perceived by Europeans as granted.

At the same time, the eastern version of the "era of mail" and mail-plate armor was quite different from the West. Thus, R. Robinson, referring to the bas-relief figures Shah Khosrov II (620), notes that the up and down was completely dressed in chain armor, chain mail, and just as well have been protected the head, neck and chest of his horse.

Image of a rider with a coat of armor from the fortress Mug near Samarkand partially preserved on a fragment of a wooden board. It can be seen in the form of armor long-skirted coat with tight-fitting shoulder straps and enclosed in Pants forearms leave open both hands.

D. Nicolle, based on the frescoes of Penjikent in Central Asia found that the armor of warriors depicted there as armor riders described in the famous poem by Ferdowsi "Shah-Nameh" and related to the end - early XI centuries. In fact no different from that in Western Europe there were four centuries later.

He also stresses that the Sogdians this era was known several types of plate armor, one of which, apparently, due to the width of its component plates, called "the palm width", which is confirmed by other beautiful images Penjikent.

An interesting detail concerns the insignia of soldiers. Those of them who are equally good shot the bow both forward and back, strengthen allowed two feathers on the helmet. This kind of helmet-mounted ornaments we meet much later in Europe. Though, regardless of the success of their owner in archery.

The presence of heavily armed horsemen IX - XI centuries in the armor of metal plates are also found in states of the Arab Caliphate. And this time, modern poets have described it as "consisting of a set of mirrors," and Arab historians - that he looks "like a Byzantine," both men and horses were dressed in armor made of metal plates, which, when well polished, brightly in the sunlight.

Thus, the Middle East and Arabia in the period from VII to XI century could boast of having just two sets of protective arms - chain and plate used by almost parallel. At the same time, R. Robinson notes that for a number of periods of illustrative material are missing because of»wild» first Turkish invasions, and then the devastation of Mongol invaders.

To one of the first noteworthy sources, including illustrative manuscripts, R. Robinson identifies "the history of the world," Rashid al-Din, made in Tabriz in 1306 - 1312 years.

The warrior depicted in its miniatures, wearing long scaly armor with a multi-colored pattern, which is formed by the alternation of ornamental plates and lacquered leather scales decorated embossed pattern. Helmets - "circular" with a prominent central decorative edge, and the brow of them are often further enhanced with a metal plate. Leather, mail, or quilted hear protection falls on chain-mail shirt, and in the central and southern Persia, in his opinion, purely Mail armor prevailed.

Persian soldiers, for example, even wore raincoats zarih Mail-Bektas, and together with them also wore armor of iron plates covered with velvet, essentially similar to the European brigandine. Protect horses from quilted cotton blankets.

At the beginning of the fourteenth century miniatures also shows the soldiers, usually dressed in scaly armor, and by the simple form helmets attached barmitsa mail. Helmets themselves low, rounded and tapered, and sometimes portrayed headphones. Most helmets serving of spines or tube, though plumes are not used.

At the end of the fourteenth century - the beginning of the XV century protective equipment for hands becomes tubular Shield consisting of two interlocking plates, conically converging to the brush. The most vulnerable part of the body of the rider - legs - protects the individual plates and knee type caps; they drag a chain mail, or embed in a woven base that covered the thigh (called ranapan). Feet shod in boots with shin and calf closed tubular shape greaves of two plates connected by hinges, which can be seen on a number of miniatures of the first third of the XV century.

In his book "Knights Outremer" famous British historian D. Nicolle notes that knights of "Lower Lands" returned to Europe after his expulsion from Syria and Palestine, bringing with them the fashion of an Eastern wealth clothing and equipment, which at the beginning of the XIII century perceived by Europeans as granted.

At the same time, the eastern version of the "era of mail" and mail-plate armor was quite different from the West. Thus, R. Robinson, referring to the bas-relief figures Shah Khosrov II (620), notes that the up and down was completely dressed in chain armor, chain mail, and just as well have been protected the head, neck and chest of his horse.

Image of a rider with a coat of armor from the fortress Mug near Samarkand partially preserved on a fragment of a wooden board. It can be seen in the form of armor long-skirted coat with tight-fitting shoulder straps and enclosed in Pants forearms leave open both hands.

D. Nicolle, based on the frescoes of Penjikent in Central Asia found that the armor of warriors depicted there as armor riders described in the famous poem by Ferdowsi "Shah-Nameh" and related to the end - early XI centuries. In fact no different from that in Western Europe there were four centuries later.

He also stresses that the Sogdians this era was known several types of plate armor, one of which, apparently, due to the width of its component plates, called "the palm width", which is confirmed by other beautiful images Penjikent.

An interesting detail concerns the insignia of soldiers. Those of them who are equally good shot the bow both forward and back, strengthen allowed two feathers on the helmet. This kind of helmet-mounted ornaments we meet much later in Europe. Though, regardless of the success of their owner in archery.

The presence of heavily armed horsemen IX - XI centuries in the armor of metal plates are also found in states of the Arab Caliphate. And this time, modern poets have described it as "consisting of a set of mirrors," and Arab historians - that he looks "like a Byzantine," both men and horses were dressed in armor made of metal plates, which, when well polished, brightly in the sunlight.

Thus, the Middle East and Arabia in the period from VII to XI century could boast of having just two sets of protective arms - chain and plate used by almost parallel. At the same time, R. Robinson notes that for a number of periods of illustrative material are missing because of»wild» first Turkish invasions, and then the devastation of Mongol invaders.

To one of the first noteworthy sources, including illustrative manuscripts, R. Robinson identifies "the history of the world," Rashid al-Din, made in Tabriz in 1306 - 1312 years.

The warrior depicted in its miniatures, wearing long scaly armor with a multi-colored pattern, which is formed by the alternation of ornamental plates and lacquered leather scales decorated embossed pattern. Helmets - "circular" with a prominent central decorative edge, and the brow of them are often further enhanced with a metal plate. Leather, mail, or quilted hear protection falls on chain-mail shirt, and in the central and southern Persia, in his opinion, purely Mail armor prevailed.

Persian soldiers, for example, even wore raincoats zarih Mail-Bektas, and together with them also wore armor of iron plates covered with velvet, essentially similar to the European brigandine. Protect horses from quilted cotton blankets.

At the beginning of the fourteenth century miniatures also shows the soldiers, usually dressed in scaly armor, and by the simple form helmets attached barmitsa mail. Helmets themselves low, rounded and tapered, and sometimes portrayed headphones. Most helmets serving of spines or tube, though plumes are not used.

At the end of the fourteenth century - the beginning of the XV century protective equipment for hands becomes tubular Shield consisting of two interlocking plates, conically converging to the brush. The most vulnerable part of the body of the rider - legs - protects the individual plates and knee type caps; they drag a chain mail, or embed in a woven base that covered the thigh (called ranapan). Feet shod in boots with shin and calf closed tubular shape greaves of two plates connected by hinges, which can be seen on a number of miniatures of the first third of the XV century.

In his book "Knights Outremer" famous British historian D. Nicolle notes that knights of "Lower Lands" returned to Europe after his expulsion from Syria and Palestine, bringing with them the fashion of an Eastern wealth clothing and equipment, which at the beginning of the XIII century perceived by Europeans as granted.

At the same time, the eastern version of the "era of mail" and mail-plate armor was quite different from the West. Thus, R. Robinson, referring to the bas-relief figures Shah Khosrov II (620), notes that the up and down was completely dressed in chain armor, chain mail, and just as well have been protected the head, neck and chest of his horse.

Image of a rider with a coat of armor from the fortress Mug near Samarkand partially preserved on a fragment of a wooden board. It can be seen in the form of armor long-skirted coat with tight-fitting shoulder straps and enclosed in Pants forearms leave open both hands.

D. Nicolle, based on the frescoes of Penjikent in Central Asia found that the armor of warriors depicted there as armor riders described in the famous poem by Ferdowsi "Shah-Nameh" and related to the end - early XI centuries. In fact no different from that in Western Europe there were four centuries later.

He also stresses that the Sogdians this era was known several types of plate armor, one of which, apparently, due to the width of its component plates, called "the palm width", which is confirmed by other beautiful images Penjikent.

An interesting detail concerns the insignia of soldiers. Those of them who are equally good shot the bow both forward and back, strengthen allowed two feathers on the helmet. This kind of helmet-mounted ornaments we meet much later in Europe. Though, regardless of the success of their owner in archery.

The presence of heavily armed horsemen IX - XI centuries in the armor of metal plates are also found in states of the Arab Caliphate. And this time, modern poets have described it as "consisting of a set of mirrors," and Arab historians - that he looks "like a Byzantine," both men and horses were dressed in armor made of metal plates, which, when well polished, brightly in the sunlight.

Thus, the Middle East and Arabia in the period from VII to XI century could boast of having just two sets of protective arms - chain and plate used by almost parallel. At the same time, R. Robinson notes that for a number of periods of illustrative material are missing because of»wild» first Turkish invasions, and then the devastation of Mongol invaders.

To one of the first noteworthy sources, including illustrative manuscripts, R. Robinson identifies "the history of the world," Rashid al-Din, made in Tabriz in 1306 - 1312 years.

The warrior depicted in its miniatures, wearing long scaly armor with a multi-colored pattern, which is formed by the alternation of ornamental plates and lacquered leather scales decorated embossed pattern. Helmets - "circular" with a prominent central decorative edge, and the brow of them are often further enhanced with a metal plate. Leather, mail, or quilted hear protection falls on chain-mail shirt, and in the central and southern Persia, in his opinion, purely Mail armor prevailed.

Persian soldiers, for example, even wore raincoats zarih Mail-Bektas, and together with them also wore armor of iron plates covered with velvet, essentially similar to the European brigandine. Protect horses from quilted cotton blankets.

At the beginning of the fourteenth century miniatures also shows the soldiers, usually dressed in scaly armor, and by the simple form helmets attached barmitsa mail. Helmets themselves low, rounded and tapered, and sometimes portrayed headphones. Most helmets serving of spines or tube, though plumes are not used.

At the end of the fourteenth century - the beginning of the XV century protective equipment for hands becomes tubular Shield consisting of two interlocking plates, conically converging to the brush. The most vulnerable part of the body of the rider - legs - protects the individual plates and knee type caps; they drag a chain mail, or embed in a woven base that covered the thigh (called ranapan). Feet shod in boots with shin and calf closed tubular shape greaves of two plates connected by hinges, which can be seen on a number of miniatures of the first third of the XV century.

Библиография
1.
Yunusov A.S. Eastern chivalry (compared to western) // Rus. / Questions of history. 1986. Number 10.
2.
Verbruggen J. F. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages from the Eight Century to 1340. Amsterdam - N. Y. Oxford, 1977.
3.
Nicolle D. Romano-Byzantine armies 4th-9th centuries. L.: Osprey (Men-at-arms series № 247), 1992.
4.
Nicolle D. Saracen Faris 1050-1250 AD. L.: Osprey (Warrior series № 10), 1994.
5.
Nicolle D. Armies of the Caliphates 862-1098. L.: Osprey (Men-at-arms series № 320), 1998.
6.
Nicolle D. Sons of Attila (Central Asian warriors, 6th to 7th centuries AD) // Military illustrated № 86.
7.
Farrokh K. Sassanian Elite Cavalry 224-642 AD. Oxford Osprey (Elite series № 110), 2005.
References (transliterated)
1.
Yunusov A.S. Eastern chivalry (compared to western) // Rus. / Questions of history. 1986. Number 10.
2.
Verbruggen J. F. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages from the Eight Century to 1340. Amsterdam - N. Y. Oxford, 1977.
3.
Nicolle D. Romano-Byzantine armies 4th-9th centuries. L.: Osprey (Men-at-arms series № 247), 1992.
4.
Nicolle D. Saracen Faris 1050-1250 AD. L.: Osprey (Warrior series № 10), 1994.
5.
Nicolle D. Armies of the Caliphates 862-1098. L.: Osprey (Men-at-arms series № 320), 1998.
6.
Nicolle D. Sons of Attila (Central Asian warriors, 6th to 7th centuries AD) // Military illustrated № 86.
7.
Farrokh K. Sassanian Elite Cavalry 224-642 AD. Oxford Osprey (Elite series № 110), 2005.
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