Статья 'INFLUENCE OF ARAB-MUSLIM CULTURE ON THE PROCESS OF ORIGIN OF DAGESTAN LITERATURE' - журнал 'Philology: scientific researches' - NotaBene.ru
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INFLUENCE OF ARAB-MUSLIM CULTURE ON THE PROCESS OF ORIGIN OF DAGESTAN LITERATURE / Влияние арабо-мусульманской культуры на процесс зарождения дагестанской литературы

Акамов Абусупьян Татарханович

доктор филологических наук

Врио директора, ведущий научный сотрудник, Институт языка, литературы и искусства им. Г. Цадасы ДФИЦ РАН

367000, Россия, республика Дагестан, г. Махачкала, ул. М. Гаджиева, 45, каб. 208

Akamov Abusup'yan Tatarkhanovich

Doctor of Philology

Acting Director, Leading Researcher, G. Tsadasa Institute of Language, Literature and Art of the Russian Academy of Sciences

367000, Russia, respublika Dagestan, g. Makhachkala, ul. M. Gadzhieva, 45, kab. 208

akamov@mail.ru
Бекеева Айгуль Муратовна

научный сотрудник, Институт языка, литературы и искусства им. Г. Цадасы ДФИЦ РАН

367000, Россия, республика Дагестан, г. Махачкала, ул. М. Гаджиева, 45, оф. 208

Bekeeva Aigul' Muratovna

Scientific Associate, Tsadasa Institute of Language, Literature and Art of Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences

367000, Russia, respublika Dagestan, g. Makhachkala, ul. M. Gadzhieva, 45, of. 208

bekeeva-92@mail.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0749.2022.4.35414

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

03-04-2021


Дата публикации:

27-04-2022


Аннотация: Предметом данного исследования является дагестанская литература, в формировании которой важную роль сыграло влияние арабского халифата на историю многих народов, оказавшихся в сфере влияния исламского мира, в том числе и Дагестана. Особое внимание уделяется первым письменностям в республике, появившимся под влиянием арабо-мусульманской культуры. Авторы статьи исследуют сложившиеся литературные традиции народов Дагестана: произведения на арабском, персидском и тюркском языках в духовной литературе Дагестана свидетельствуют о многовековом влиянии восточной культуры. В рукописи дается обзор первых арабоязычных источников, написанных на территории Дагестана в X-XII вв. Важно, что распространение письменности на основе арабской графики способствовало повышению уровня грамотности населения Дагестана, что нашло отражение не только в литературе. С интеграцией арабского языка в обществе происходит творческий расцвет деятельности ученых различных областей науки: этики, догматики, логики, мусульманского права, агиографии и многих других. Со временем из числа дагестанцев выросла плеяда ученых, которые создали на арабском языке уникальные произведения, ставшие первыми памятниками культуры и литературы Дагестана. Авторы данного исследования выделяют не только влияние восточной литературы, но и творчества народов Ближнего и Среднего Востока на судьбы дагестанской письменной литературы и литературных традиций. Знание арабского языка было обязательно для каждого образованного мусульманина.


Ключевые слова:

арабо-мусульманская культура, исламизация, художественная литература Дагестана, духовная письменность кумыков, хроники, историческое развитие, суфизм, региональная историография, арабский язык, Восточная литература

Abstract: The subject of this study is Dagestan literature. Special attention is paid to the first written works in the republic, which appeared under the influence of Arab-Muslim culture. This article examines the influence of Arabic-language culture on the formation of literary traditions of the peoples of Dagestan. Works in Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages in the spiritual literature of Dagestan testify to the centuries-old impact of Eastern culture. The manuscript gives an overview of the first Arabic-language sources written on the territory of Dagestan in the X-XII centuries. With the integration of the Arabic language in society, there is a creative flourishing of the activities of scientists of various fields of science: ethics, dogmatics, logic, Muslim law, hagiography and many others. The authors note not only the influence of Eastern literature, but also the creativity of the peoples of the Near and Middle East in the fate of Dagestan written literature and literary traditions. The authors of the article note that the spread of writing based on Arabic graphics contributed to the increase in the level of literacy of the Dagestan population, which is reflected in the literature.


Keywords:

Arab-Muslim culture, Islamization, Dagestan fiction, spiritual writing of the Kumyks, chronicles, historical development, Sufism, regional historiography, Arabic language, Eastern literature

The Arab caliphate played an important role in the history of many peoples who found themselves in the sphere of influence of the Islamic world, including Dagestan. In the caliphate «a process of interaction between different civilizations gave birth to a new highly developed culture, a language which was Arabic, and the ideological basis of Islam, the new monotheistic religion with a system of ethical-legal concepts and religious-political institutions that emerged during the Arab conquest. This Arab-Muslim cules to this day» [1, p. 3].

The movingture for many centuries to come determined the ways of development of the peoples who professed Islam, affecting their liv forces of Arab-Muslim culture the Arabic language and Islam penetrated Dagestan along with the campaigns of the Arabs, when they made their way through missionary activities and established their power and religion in the vast territories of the West and East, North and South. The Arabic language and Islam became an integral part of the culture of many Dagestan peoples, including the Kumyks, playing a huge role in the formation of spiritual culture and moral criteria.

A new stage in the development and expansion of the influence of the Arabic language in Dagestan is associated with a number of factors and, above all, with the creation of local, original literature in Arabic.

The first monuments of Arabic language Dagestan writing that have come down to us were chronicles dedicated to historical events that took place in the Caucasus and Dagestan in the X–XII centuries. About the monuments of this period in the article of G. G. Gamzatov, M. S. Saidov, A. R. Shikhsaidov says the following: «The local works are: “History of Shirvan and Derbent” – a large historical canvas composed at the beginning of the XII century and covering events from the end of the VIII century to 1075; “Tarikh Dagestan” by Mukhammed Raphi (ХIV), a chronicle consisting of several parts, completely independent, but united by a common idea, and the earliest part of them can be attributed to the X-XI centuries; the main components of the historical work “Derbent-name”, they date back to about the tenth century, although the work itself was composed in the sixteenth century by Mukhammed Avabi Aktashi; “The Chronicle of Makhmud Khinalugskiy”; composed in 1465, chronicles of other villages, “The History of Abu Muslim” etc.»[2, p. 218].

The creation of works of regional historiography in Arabic in the X–XV centuries can be described as an important cultural phenomenon. Almost all extant local works of this time can formally be attributed to the historical genre, however, there is no doubt that they can be considered as monuments of Dagestan literature in general. In the future, the social position of the Arabic language in Dagestan is increasingly strengthened, and in the XVIII – early XX century there is a flourishing of scientific and literary activity in this language.

Although chronicles occupied a leading place, other genres of Arabic language literature began to appear. These include the works of local scholars on Muslim law, dogmatics, ethics, logic, medicine, epistolary literature, hagiography, etc. Arabic, without replacing local languages in everyday life, at the same time became the main language of literature, science, education, office work, assembly materials, private and official correspondence. All this has largely determined the role of the Arabic language and literary creativity of the peoples of the Near and Middle East in the fate of Dagestan written literature and literary traditions.

During studying the problems of the origin and formation of many Dagestan literatures, including the Kumyk literature, in our opinion, it is impossible to reduce the entire process of the origin and development of literature entirely to the influence of eastern culture. The researcher of Avar literature, professor S. M. Khaibullaev stated: «The question of the presence of an original and distinctive culture among the Dagestan peoples was completely ignored long before the beginning of the conquest of Dagestan by the eastern conquerors. And the fact that this culture went back centuries, to the period of the existence of Caucasian Albania» [3, p. 20].

Definitely, the process of perceiving an alien experience can become productive only when it falls on a prepared ground, in a literature capable of introducing and developing it on the basis of its traditions. We suppose that the peoples of Dagestan were prepared for the perception and assimilation of the Arab-Muslim culture due to the presence of their own national and artistic traditions.

From the very beginning the interest in the Arabic language was associated with the study of the Koran, Koranic literature, and the penetration of Islam, but later the scope of application of the language turned out to be more extensive. The ethnic and linguistic diversity of Dagestan probably contributed to the wide spread of the Arabic language as a means of communication available to a significant part of the population, in particular the clergy.

Arabic-speaking culture acts as a factor of centuries-old influence on the cultural life of the peoples of Dagestan, «as one of the sources that inspired the cultures of this region», and the process of mastering the Arabic language itself is a reflection of the spiritual need of the mountain population for knowledge and for familiarizing with the achievements of world civilization [4, p. 30].

Knowledge of the Arabic language became a mandatory element of every educated Muslim. A pleiad of scientists grew out of the number of Dagestanis with the time, they created original works, which were the first monuments of culture and literature of Dagestan, created in Arabic language.

The assessment of the genesis of this peculiar culture given by orientalist scholars was different. Some of them were inclined to consider this culture a branch of Arabic literature. The Dagestani scholar-orientalist M.-S. Saidov wrote: «The character of Dagestan literature in Arabic is determined by the peculiarities of the historical development of the country. Developing as a provincial literature, it is of great importance for the science of Dagestan as a historical source and interesting literary material, and for general Arabic studies, as it makes it possible to present a clear picture of the development of one of the side branches of Arabic literature» [5, p. 11].

At the initial acquaintance with Dagestan sources in Arabic, academician I. Y. Krachkovsky expressed a similar opinion, but after a thorough and in-depth study of Dagestan sources in Arabic, he comes to the conclusion that Arabic language literature was connected with Dagestan reality and was a material entirely grown on national soil.

Arabic literature penetrated into Dagestan in its originals, i.e. in its linguistic expression (translations into native languages began to be engaged later – A. A.). For Dagestan people, the type of writer who usually knew Eastern literature well was characteristic. Academician I. Y. Krachkovsky wrote that «in this period is easily found access to this area and poetry; with great interest I have studied Arabic poems legendary Medzhnun popular and famous anthology of the classical era “al-ḥamasā” (IX) works which Dagestan people strenuously imitated, sometimes they have become particularly popular individual poets for unknown for us reasons; this was, for example, the singer of Kḥorasān XII century al-Abivārdi, manuscripts of poems of which in Dagestan are not uncommon» [6, p. 618].

Near and Middle Eastern humanistic fiction was also widely distributed in Dagestan, both in the form of Arabic, Turkic and Persian manuscripts, and in the form of oral transmission in local languages. Connoisseurs of fine literature also knew the works of pre-Islamic legendary Arab poets. This is evidenced by the book «Āntara al-Absī» with the works of Imrulkāis, «Al-Muallāki» – a collection of qasid masterpieces of ancient Arabic and pre-Islamic poetry.

From early Arab authors and writings, Dagestanis were familiar with fables of Abdullā ibn al-Mukāffa ( died in 763 year), the poetry of great poets Abū Nuvāsa (762–813), Abū-Tammāma (806–845), Abū at-Tājīb al-Mutanabbī (915–965), of the great poet and philosopher Abu-l Alyā al-Maari (973–1058), Omār ibn al-Farīda (1181–1234), the prose of al-Kharirī (1051–122) etc. Dagestan people were famous with the works of such major poets and scientists of the heyday of humanism, like Firdoūsi, Nizamī, O. Khayām, Saadī, Khafīza, Dzhamī, Navoī, Fizulī and many others.

Among the scientists and poets of Dagestan, studies on certain problems of literature were spread: «Kitāb al-bayān va ttabijīn» («Questions of Style and Rhetoric») by al-Dzhaḥīza, «Kitāb amtīri va am-tuāra» («The Book of Poetry and Poets») by ibn Kutājba, «Al-muvazāna bājna Abū-Tammām va al Buḥtūri» («Comparison between Abu-Tammām and al-Buhtūri») by Husejn al-Amīdi, «Hazanāt al-adāb» («Treasury of Literature of ibn Hidzhat al-Hamāvi»), «Kitāb ilmul al-adab» («Book about Science – Literature») by Sheikḥ Lyuis, «Arrabī fi anvan al-bādi» («Spring about the Types of Poetics») Sadr ad-Dīna al-Muzāni.

Dagestan scientists and poets were also familiar with the treatises of major poets and scientists devoted to poetics. Among such treatises, researchers call the essay on Sufism «Al-Fašūš» Muḥi ad-dīna ibn Arabī. «The Resurrection of the Sciences of Faith» by the prominent representative of Šufīsm al-Ġhazalī, «A Breath of Friendship from the Halls of Holiness» by Abduraḥmān Jamī and other works were also known [7, p. 6].

The adoption of Islam opened up great opportunities for the peoples of Dagestan to join the Arab-Muslim culture, marked the beginning of the penetration of the philosophical and literary-artistic ideas of the East into this region, which played a significant role in the development of written literature. Like any other religion, Islam contains universal norms of morality, preaches the ideals of justice, love, humanism, moral improvement, and condemns cruelty, violence and greed. Our research shows that due to the increased spread of Islam, the perception of it by the broad masses as their native religion, the influence of Arab-Muslim culture on Dagestan, including Kumyk, literature has increased. The spread of writing on the basis of Arabic graphics (ajam), the growth of education, especially Muslim education, the spread of literacy, all this is the beginning to be reflected in literature. The poets enriched their works with references and reminiscences from the Koran and hadiths. Arab-Muslim culture with its diverse and aesthetically developed literature took a direct part in the development of Dagestan, including Kumyk Arabic-language literature, its genres, styles, directions, and content.

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Рецензируемая статья «Влияние арабо-мусульманской культуры на процесс зарождения дагестанской литературы» вносит вклад в изучение истории развития локальной литературной традиции, так и интерференцию иноязычной литературной традиции и культуры, в частности арабской, а также распространения ислама и арабского языка на территории нашей страны. Кроме того, в статье затрагивается сфера духовной жизни народности Российской Федерации через интерференцию арабоязычной культуры. Немаловажным является и вклад автора в изучение языка и литературы народов Российской Федерации, которым, к сожалению, уделяется не так много внимания в современных исследованиях. Изучение арабского языка и его интерференции на литературу восточнокавказской языковой народности Российской Федерации представляется актуальным в наши дни.
Отметим, что исследование является междисциплинарным, автор аппелирует к источниковедению, культурологии и истории, а также религиоведению, но филологическая составляющая, а именно собственно языковедческий и литературоведческий методологический инструментарий доминируют. В работе используется анализ, синтез, собственно методы историографии и филологии.
В работе автор рассматривает становление литературоведческой традиции в Дагестане, приводит имена выдающихся писателей разных веков, делает попытки выделить и систематизировать арабоязычное влияние.
Одним их преимуществ рецензируемой работы является скрупулёзная работа автора по изучению влияния арабского языка на развитие литературы и становление культуры народности. Несомненно распространение ислама среди народностей и послужило катализатором абсорбции чужеродной культуры Востока и арабского языка.
Несомненным преимуществом является публикация данных на английском языке, что позволяет сделать их доступными для исследователей по всему миру.
Однако, как и любая работа, рассматриваемая статья не лишена недостатков, которые заключены, первую очередь, в слабой научной базе. Так, библиография содержит всего 7 источника, которые датируются началом 20 века и 60-80-ми годами. Очевидно, что за последние годы было произведено большое количество исследований, о которых умолчал автор, что позволяет сделать вывод о недостаточной библиографии для такого масштабного исследования. Таким образом в статье отсутствует апелляция к степени научной разработанности рассматриваемой проблемы, что не позволяет сделать объективное умозаключение об актуальности предлагаемого автором материала и приращении научного знания.
Представленный материал будет несомненно полезен исследователям литературы, фольклористам, специалистам по кавказским языка и собственно арабистам, а также студентам филологических и переводческих факультетов, а также и религиоведам.
Статья написана научным стилем речи, ошибки, опечатки и неточности не выявлены.
Общее впечатление после прочтения статьи - положительное, что позволяет рекомендовать рецензируемую статью к публикации в научном журнале из перечня ВАК.
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