по
Философская мысль
12+
Меню журнала
> Архив номеров > Рубрики > О журнале > Авторы > О журнале > Требования к статьям > Редакционный совет > Редакция журнала > Порядок рецензирования статей > Политика издания > Ретракция статей > Этические принципы > Политика открытого доступа > Оплата за публикации в открытом доступе > Online First Pre-Publication > Политика авторских прав и лицензий > Политика цифрового хранения публикации > Политика идентификации статей > Политика проверки на плагиат
Журналы индексируются
Реквизиты журнала

ГЛАВНАЯ > Вернуться к содержанию
Статьи автора Нестеркин Сергей Петрович
Философская мысль, 2022-12
Nesterkin S. - The Main Principles and Directions of the Activity of Socially Engaged Buddhism c. 23-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2022.12.39181

Abstract: The work deals with the history, main principles and areas of activity of "Socially Engaged Buddhism" - an influential trend of modern Buddhist social activism that is especially popular in Western countries. It is noted that its relevance is caused by the need to develop new forms of interaction between Buddhism and society, brought about by a clash with the ideology and social practices of modernity as well as by the consequences of the globalization process; according to the ideologists of "Socially Engaged Buddhism," the traditional forms of Sangha social activity had ceased to meet the challenges of modernity. The main areas of activity of the movement are: 1) environmental issues; 2) racism and ethno-cultural diversity; 3) volunteer and educational work with prisoners; and 4) the women's movement and gender issues. The movement of Engaged Buddhism rather quickly acquired institutionalized forms in the West. Moreover, if initially its activity developed within the framework of Asian Buddhist organizations that have branches in the countries of the West, subsequently new forms and organizations developed within Western communities. These structures quite actively conduct publishing, educational and training activities, so that at present the "Engaged Buddhism" movement is one of the most influential forms of social activity of Buddhism in the countries of the West.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2022-1
Nesterkin S. - Sources of the Perception of Buddhism in the Russian Cultural Environment c. 45-50

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2022.1.37082

Abstract: The goal of this work is to examine the sources of establishment of the image of Buddhism in the Russian cultural environment, as well as determine the degree of representativeness of this image. The author outlines the three primary sources: 1) academic research works of the Western Schools of Buddhism (based on Pali and Sanskrit material); 2) research carried out within the framework of the Russian School of Buddhology (mainly based on Tibetan and Mongolian material); 3) research of the Russian Orthodox missionaries. It is determined that the key theoretical provision developed in the Anglo-Germanic School of Buddhology is  the thesis on the authenticity of Theravāda Buddhism, which is considered as the "original,” and its other forms such as Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna) are its later modifications that emerged under the influence of external factors. The main features of Buddhism in Western Buddhology include: 1) Buddha Shakyamuni was not a transcendental being; 2) his nirvana is understood nihilistically, as the complete cessation of the process of existence; 3)  Buddhism denies the existence of soul; 4) the existence of God alongside the idea of the transcendental are also denied. Despite the fact that the research based on Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna material demonstrate the failure of such assessments, the aforementioned theses continued to be reproduced. This is explained by the interest of certain significant social groups in such image of Buddhism. Firstly, this view was supported by many Orthodox figures. The interpretation of Buddhism as a philosophical-ethical rather than religious system propelled Buddhism beyond the boundaries of the religious search for people who find foothold in faith. Secondly, similar interpretation entailed the antagonistic attitudes of scholars and scientifically oriented society. Rational aspects of Buddhism that align it with science were uncritically overemphasized. Buddhism was viewed as an ally of the scientific way of thinking, completely alien to faith.
Исторический журнал: научные исследования, 2020-6
Nesterkin S. - Hierarchical systems and their evolution in Buddhist communities of Central Asia c. 15-21

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0609.2020.6.34493

Abstract: This article examines the hierarchical systems established in Buddhist communities of Central Asia.  Hierarchies are viewed in the spiritual context: by level of taking of vows, educational attainment, level of practical implementation of knowledge, rank in the institution of “Reincarnated Lamas”; as well as hierarchies important in administrative context, such as levels of responsibility, governance of monasteries, rank within the structure of state administration, and interaction with government institutions. It is noted that genetically all of them ascend to Teacher – student hierarchy. This work explores the evolution of these hierarchies under the changing historical conditions, as well their complex interrelations. It is demonstrated that hierarchical system evolved depending on such factors, as the development of monastic education, increased role in the communities of “Reincarnated Lamas”, shift in the role of monasteries within state administration along with the role of government in regulation of the religious institutions. It is determined that hierarchies partially intersected, but also diverged due to the possibility of relatively autonomous practice of Sutra and Tantra, which formed different types of communities –  sangha and ganachakra respectively. In Russia, Buddhist communities were integrated into the system of state-religious relations, which required centralization of religious community resulting in the fact that the administrative church structures took the central stage. Liberalization of state control of the religious activity in post-Soviet Russia led to the emergence of multiple secular Buddhist associations that practiced Mahayanist and tantric methods structured as ganachakra. The central place was held by the structure of religious hierarchy along with “Teacher – student” relations. The conclusion is made that such structural differentiation of Buddhist communities is the results of the natural course of self-determination of various traditions in the conditions of freedom of religion.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2020-4
Nesterkin S. - Hierarchical systems and their evolution in Buddhist communities of Central Asia c. 11-17

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2020.4.34529

Abstract: This article examines the hierarchical systems established in Buddhist communities of Central Asia.  Hierarchies are viewed in the spiritual context: by level of taking of vows, educational attainment, level of practical implementation of knowledge, rank in the institution of “Reincarnated Lamas”; as well as hierarchies important in administrative context, such as levels of responsibility, governance of monasteries, rank within the structure of state administration, and interaction with government institutions. It is noted that genetically all of them ascend to Teacher – student hierarchy. This work explores the evolution of these hierarchies under the changing historical conditions, as well their complex interrelations. It is demonstrated that hierarchical system evolved depending on such factors, as the development of monastic education, increased role in the communities of “Reincarnated Lamas”, shift in the role of monasteries within state administration along with the role of government in regulation of the religious institutions. It is determined that hierarchies partially intersected, but also diverged due to the possibility of relatively autonomous practice of Sutra and Tantra, which formed different types of communities –  sangha and ganachakra respectively. In Russia, Buddhist communities were integrated into the system of state-religious relations, which required centralization of religious community resulting in the fact that the administrative church structures took the central stage. Liberalization of state control of the religious activity in post-Soviet Russia led to the emergence of multiple secular Buddhist associations that practiced Mahayanist and tantric methods structured as ganachakra. The central place was held by the structure of religious hierarchy along with “Teacher – student” relations. The conclusion is made that such structural differentiation of Buddhist communities is the results of the natural course of self-determination of various traditions in the conditions of freedom of religion.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2019-2
Nesterkin S. - Philosophy of language and problem of expressiveness of the Absolute in Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism c. 42-48

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2019.2.28373

Abstract: The subject of this research is the concept of expressiveness of the Absolute, developed in Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism. In majority of Buddhist schools it is established that the language, due to its binary nature, is capable of expressing only the relative truth, while the absolute truth can be cognized in the state of unidirectional meditative submersion, with the absence of any duality, including the linguistic symbolic structures. However, in Gelug School it is emphasized that it is impossible to explain an adept the technique of realization of direct vision of the absolute unless using the language, which also allows reaching enlightenment and further translation of the tradition. Based on the materials of Tibetan texts, the author explicates the philosophical views of Gelug School, which, according to the thought of its successors, eliminate such contradiction. The main conclusion consists in the fact the Gelug School developed the concept of language that subdivides the verbal/conceptual into two types. The first one  contains the verbal/conceptual, resulted from the ascription (Tibetan: sgro 'dogs) of false qualities of the objects of consideration, which should be obviated. The second one is deprived of false ascription, and forms in the course of using a specific type of philosophical discourse – prasangika, serving as the cause of emergence of the “middle view” (Tibetan: dbu lta) that sees all things properly. This allows the successor of prasangika to effectively use the verbal structures for adequate cognition at the conceptual level, and transition towards the direct cognition of the absolute truth, which ultimately helps to acquire freedom and reach a state of nirvana.
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2019-1
Nesterkin S. - The main trends in the renewal movement of Russian Buddhism in early 20th century. c. 16-23

DOI:
10.25136/1339-3057.2019.1.28385

Abstract: In early 20th century part of the Buddhist Sangha started a process of revising its organization forms as well as its theoretical and practical heritage. Two essentially different movements existed in that sphere. They had different tasks and quite different approaches for solving those tasks. On the one hand, the activity of such Buryat enlightenment scholars as B. Baradin, Ts. Jamsarano as well as representatives of the clergy such as A. Dorjiev, Ch. Iroltuyev, Ganjurova-Gegen were part of the renewal processes in Buddhism that took place in many countries where it was spread. The renewal process was a reaction against the ideological and economic expansion of the colonialist countries and was designed to develop the ideological basis for preserving the national identity of the colonized nations. On the other hand, Lubsan Sandan Tsydenov and his followers had quite a different task: to reform Buddhism in order to enable it to develop in a new social and cultural environment – in the Western culture of Russia. Their task was not so much preserving the national identity as developing the Buddhist tradition in a new cultural environment, which also solved the question of identity in an indirect way.
Genesis: исторические исследования, 2018-12
Nesterkin S. - The main trends in the renewal movement of Russian Buddhism at the beginning of the XX century . c. 8-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.12.28244

Abstract: The object of the study is the renovationist movement in Russian Buddhism. At the beginning of the XX century, some part of the Buddhist community began the process of revising the organizational forms of its existence, revising its theoretical and practical baggage. The work focuses on defining the basic principles of the main directions of this movement, studying their goals and objectives and identifying differences in their approaches to reforming the Buddhist church in the context of the ongoing changes in the socio-political conditions of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of the analysis of documents and archival materials, the author investigated the doctrinal and ideological foundations of the movements and their organizational forms. The study found that there were two significantly different movements that set themselves very different tasks and used fundamentally different approaches to solve them. On the one hand, the activities of Buryat enlighteners B. Baradin, Ts.Zhamsarano, etc., and such representatives of the clergy as A. Dorzhiev, Ch. Iroltuev, Ganzhurova–Gegen were designed to develop an ideological basis for preserving the national identity of the Buddhist peoples of Russia in the conditions of ideological and political expansion. On the other hand, L.S. Tsydenov and his followers set themselves a significantly different task: to reform Buddhism in such a way that it could develop in a new socio–cultural environment, in the Western culture of Russia. The task here was not so much the preservation of national identity as the development of the Buddhist tradition in a new cultural space, which indirectly solved the first task.
Философия и культура, 2018-11
Nesterkin S. - The Problem of the Expressibility of the Absolute in the Philosophy of Language of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism c. 59-65

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2018.11.28222

Abstract:  This paper analyzes the concept of language developed in Gelug School and discusses its specific features. The majority of the Buddhist schools state that language can express only the relative truth. As for the absolute truth, it can be cognized directly in the meditative state when any duality is absent, including the symbolic linguistic structures. However, the Gelug School accentuates the point that it is impossible to explain the techniques of realization of the absolute without the use of language. That is why the concept of language was developed in the Gelug School, according to which not all verbal structures are obstacles to enlightenment. The followers of the Gelug School subdivide concepts into two types. The first type includes the concepts that have arisen as a result of ascribin  (Tib. sgro ‘dogs) the false qualities to the objects. The second type is deprived of the false ascribing; it is formed in the process of using the special type of philosophical discourse – prasangika, which is the factor for emerging of the “middle view” (Tib. dbu lta), the proper view of things. This allows the follower of prasanga to efficiently use the verbal structures for (1) adequate cognition on the conceptual level and (2) transition towards the direct attainment of the absolute truth, which as a result leads to gaining freedom and achieving the state of Buddha. 
Философия и культура, 2017-12
Донец А.М., Нестеркин С.П. - Философ и философское познание в буддийской традиции школы Гелук c. 1-12

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.12.24823

Аннотация: В работе ставится задача эксплицировать представления буддистов школы Гелук о том, кто является философом, что есть верное философское познание и каково его место и роль в сотериологической системе буддизма. Выделяются и анализируются основные характеристики, определяющие буддийского философа: "приход к прибежищу" Будды, Дхармы и Сангхи; использование в качестве истинного аргумента (тиб. rtags yang dag) правильного умозаключения авторитетное мнение (тиб. lung); приобретение убежденности в истинности идей буддийской философии как особой формы Учения посредством доказательства; беспристрастное (тиб. ma chags pa, chags med) отношение к любым идеям, которое сочетается с убежденностью в правильности собственной позиции таким образом, что они (беспристрастность и убежденность) укрепляют друг друга. Дается анализ процесса философского познания как необходимой составляющей сотериологического проекта буддизма. Работа выполнена на основе референтных тибетоязычных источников, рассматриваемых в контексте живой традиции центрально-азиатского буддизма. В работе установлено, что буддийский философ традиции Гелук посредством прасанг (тиб. thal ‘gyur – особого вида умозаключений, которые выдвигаются в ответ на суждение оппонента, благодаря чему, опираясь только на признаваемое самим оппонентом суждение, вскрывается его ошибочность) и обычных доказательств формирует срединную позицию ума и, оставаясь в рамках философии, решает задачу опровержения ложных представлений. Сформировавшиеся при этом истинное представление и убежденность в его верности обладают специфическими особенностями, делающими их пригодными для дальнейшего использования в процессе реализации непосредственного ведания конечной истины с помощью применения медитативных техник.
Философская мысль, 2017-12
Нестеркин С.П. - Учение о «Сущности Будды» в религиозно-философской традиции буддизма c. 32-42

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8728.2017.12.24952

Аннотация: В статье рассматривается учение о сущности Будды (санскр. tathāgatagarbha, тиб. de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po), как оно представлено в канонической литературе Сутр и Шастр, а также комментаторской традиции тибетского буддизма. Это учение является ключевым в персонологии буддизма, поскольку через понятие «сущность Будды» (санскр. tathāgatagarbha) и связанные с ней понятия – «естественное свечение ума (санскр. prakṛtiprabhāsvaratācitta)», «естественно существующий духовный зародыш» (санскр. prakṛtipragotra) – раскрывается цель совершенствующего движения, процесс движения к цели и его основание. Работа выполнена на основе референтных тибетоязычных источников, рассматриваемых в контексте живой традиции центрально-азиатского буддизма. Установлено, что сущность Будды рассматривается в литературе сутр как присутствующее в каждом высшее, абсолютное «Я» (санскр. ātman), отличное от эмпирического «я», бытие которого как самосущего явления отрицается в буддизме. В тибетской комментаторской традиции основным вопросом было то, как интерпретировать сущность Будды – в качестве позитивного бытия, которое проявляется, когда индивид освобождается от омрачающих факторов, или как не предполагающее позитивного содержания «неутвердительное отрицание» негативных факторов.
Философия и культура, 2017-11
Нестеркин С.П. - Конфессиональная компаративистика в буддизме махаяны c. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2017.11.24513

Аннотация: Работа посвящена исследованию тибетоязычных источников по конфессиональной компаративистике центрально-азиатского буддизма. Это направление традиционной философской мысли, зародившееся в Индии, получило широкое развитие в Тибете, в особенности в схоластический период развития буддийской философии. В основном оно представлено в работах полемического характера (dGag lan), посвященных обсуждению спорных моментов в воззрениях основных религиозно-философских школ буддизма, а также в историко-философской литературе (grub mtha’), дающей сравнительный анализ философских школ индийского буддизма. Работа выполнена на основе референтных тибетоязычных источников, рассматриваемых в контексте живой традиции центрально-азиатского буддизма. В исследовании было установлено, что конфессиональная буддийская компаративистика выполняла две основные функции: пропедевтическую и герменевтическую. Первая состояла в том, что посредством изложения более простых философских систем ученик приуготовлялся к восприятию более сложных. Вторая решала задачу классификации философских учений в соответствии с тем, насколько полно они отражают «замысел проповеди Будды», посредством чего обосновывалось превосходство собственной системы над прочими. Теоретическое пространство философско-религиозных доктрин буддизма организовывалось по принципу инклюзивизма, когда теоретические построения школ, рассматриваемых как «низшие», определялись как неполные и включались в общую теоретическую схему школы, в качестве учений, подготавливающих адептов к восприятию их собственной (полной) доктрины.
Философия и культура, 2016-12
Нестеркин С.П. - Проблема определения личности в индийских духовно-исторических традициях

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0757.2016.12.21164

Аннотация: В статье на материале тибетской буддийской схоластической литературы рассматриваются подходы к определению личности в индийских ортодоксальных и неортодоксальных религиозно-философских школах. В работе рассматриваются термины, служащие (в текстах сутр и шастр) маркером личности и анализируются ее основные определения. Значительное внимание уделяется анализу небуддийских взглядов на личность, как (1) постоянную, (2) единичную и (3) независимую и раскрывается аргументация буддистов, критиковавших эти воззрения. Определяется, что в буддизме, в противовес тезису «иноверческих» учений о наличии самостности (тиб. bdag) личности, выдвигается утверждение о ее бессамостности (тиб. bdag med) и приводится анализ трактовок этого понятия в различных буддийской школах. Исследование в методологическом плане строится на анализе референтных текстов в контексте живой философско-религиозной традиции буддизма. В работе делается вывод, что отрицание самостности личности в буддизме надо понимать в контексте полемики буддизма с небуддийскими религиозно-философскими традициями. Возражения буддистов направлены не против личностного принципа как такового, но против ошибочного, по их мнению, понимания личности как субъекта освобождения, развиваемого в ортодоксальных и неортодоксальных индийских духовных традициях.
Другие сайты издательства:
Официальный сайт издательства NotaBene / Aurora Group s.r.o.