SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - рубрика Psychology
SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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ГЛАВНАЯ > Журнал "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences" > Рубрика "Psychology"
Tomyuk O.N. - Creativity through the prism of the unconscious in S. Freud's concept of psychoanalysis c. 20-27


Abstract: The modernizing global world with new socio-cultural practices actualizes the study of creativity as a constitutive phenomenon of human personality in the context of challenges of the modern era. The object of this research is creativity as a cultural phenomenon, while the subject is creativity in the S. Freud's concept of psychoanalysis. In the era of transformations and uncertainty, when the role of creativity is growing, the ideas of S. Freud acquire special significance. The article considers the unconscious in the context of social, in conjunction with social factors and as the key position in creativity. The theoretical and methodological framework us comprised of the cultural-historical and comparative methods. Systemic approach allowed considering the phenomenon of creativity as a system in the assembly of elements. The author also applies the methods of analogy, analysis, comparison, generalization. Sublimation mechanism, discovered by Freud, is viewed in the context of creativity, as a method for redirection of energy displaced into the field of the unconscious by social factors, into the sphere of creativity. The concept of psychoanalysis serves as the methodological basis for explaination of creativity as a complex process of cumulation of conscious and unconscious.
Subbotsky E. - Art as the window into the supernatural c. 21-35


Abstract: This article analyzes the artworks by the founder of “metaphysical realism”, Italian artist Giorgio de Chirico, and the Belgian surrealist artist Rene Magritte in the context of paleoanthropological studies of the origin of art and psychological studies on magical thinking. These studies suggest that art originated from the belief of early humans in that next to the ordinary earthly world there exists a magical supernatural world, in which dwell the souls of the dead people and animals. In order to visualize and represent this magical world, humans created special objects – drawings, sculpture, architecture, and abstract signs and symbols. In the course of history, the belief in the magical world was replaced by official monotheistic religions, and in many modern individuals – by the belief in science. The sense of the magical was transformed into the sense of the aesthetical, and the means of visualizing the supernatural in the form of rock paintings and figurines carved from bone and stone – into modern art. Yet recent studies on magical thinking have shown that in modern urban inhabitants the belief in magic did not cease to exist, but descended into the subconscious. Although our conscious mind denies the existence of magic, our subconscious mind still believes in that beyond the known world lies the invisible world of the supernatural. It is the laws of magic, and not laws of science that rule this invisible world. De Chirico’s and Magritte’s paintings are the “wormholes” that give modern rational people access to their hidden belief in the world of the supernatural, the existence of which is denied by the modern science.
Subbotsky E. - Miracles in Law: Magical Underpinning of Physical Universe c. 22-40


Abstract: The paper analyses a psychological phenomenon, which indicates that certain structures of magical thinking, such as “participation” and “mind over matter”, leaked into the concepts of modern physics and cosmology. Recent psychological experiments have shown that modern rational adults subconsciously believe in the supernatural. At the same time, philosophical and psychological studies have found that there exists a deeply rooted link between magical and scientific types of thinking. Magical thinking operates at the level of the subconscious through symbolic images, where it generates draft “theories in the making”; scientific thinking filters these draft theories and selects those, which are in concord with “objective reality”. Criteria used for this selection are empirical verification via experiments and compliance of a theory with the general context of available knowledge. As physical science stepped over from the observable world into the micro- and mega-worlds, empirical verification of certain theoretical ideas through experiments became impossible. There remaining criterion - compliance with the general context of knowledge - is a lot “softer”, than empirical verification. This “softening” of the borderline between magical and scientific thinking resulted in that a subconscious belief of modern people in the supernatural filtered through into the very “heart” of physics – its theories about the origin and structure of the universe.
Subbotsky E. - Religion and belief in the supernatural c. 24-43


Abstract: This article examines the following questions: why do people believe in God if there is no proof; is it possible to live without faith; where is the correlation between religious faith, belief in science, and belief in magic in the consciousness of modern people. The conclusion is made that the belief in the supernatural world occurs as a result of emergence of the cognitive abilities in primeval human (such as powerful imagination) and deep grieving over the death of a congener. The souls of the ancestors, who populated the mystical world, became the first gods. Religion has gradually separated from magic, but retained its connection to magic trough belief in the supernatural. The psychological experiments of the recent decades demonstrated that despite the joint efforts of the official religion and science to uproot the belief in magic from modern Western society, the belief in the supernatural remained on the subconscious level. Presence of phenomena that cannot be explained by science confirms that belief in the supernatural is not strictly atavistic remnants of the human psychology of past historical eras, but has certain empirical foundation. The scientific novelty of this research consists in the following: religious belief is examined in the context of modern experimental research of magic though for the first time; a new claim is made on the agreement between science and official religion in the fight against magic. Among the main conclusions are the following: religion historically and psychologically emanates from earlier human belief in magic; having separated from magic, religion begins to view magic as an adversary in the struggle from human conscience; religion becomes antagonistic towards magic and views it as manifestation of dark forces.
Kryuchkov K.S. - Hermeneutics of love: new ground for psychological and social practice c. 35-45


Abstract: This article analyzes and compares two analytical approaches actively advanced in the school of America hermeneutic psychology and clinical social psychology: “hermeneutics of love” and “hermeneutics of suspicion”. The author examines the hermeneutics as not only a narrow practice of interpretation of texts, but as a foundation for thinking and professional worldview, including for psychological work. Hermeneutics of suspicion serves as the foundation for many research and therapeutic practices. At the same time, hermeneutics of love is the basis for psychological practices, developing within the framework of hermeneutic psychotherapy, including client-centric psychotherapy of Carl Rogers and its branches. This work is completely theoretical. The author claims that the hermeneutics of love may not only be an approach towards interpretation and understanding of text, but also the ethical and epistemological basis for social practices. Moreover, it can serve as the foundation for practices pertaining to interaction with people and communicative practices, and not just for psychological practice.
Chesnokova O.B., Subbotsky E., Martirosova Y.V. - PTSI: Testing children's social intelligence through play c. 36-49


Abstract:  This article presents the play-based test on social intelligence (PTSI) in preschool and elementary school children. The advantage of this method over traditionally employed methods is that it does not rely on the mature symbolic function. Preschool and elementary school children find it difficult to adequately react to questionnaires that require interpretation of pictures. In contrast, PTSI employs a simple play situation, easily accessible to 6-12 years old children. This situation allows a sensitive assessment of degrees of social intelligence in children while engaging them individually in an exciting play. The situation requires the participant to find the best strategy for solving a problem, report information to a partner, while making this information inaccessible to strangers and avoiding direct deception at the same time. Complemented by an external assessment of social intelligence, this test can be a useful diagnostic tool for determining strengths and weaknesses in children’s resolution of interpersonal problematic situations, including conflict of interests. 
Subbotsky E. - Games with the Supernatural: Magical Reality in the Everyday Life c. 38-55


Abstract: The paper discusses the following issues: What is magical reality? What domains of modern life does magical reality penetrate? Why is magical reality important for many people today? What psychological consequences does the engagement with magical reality entail? In ancient times and in the Middle Ages people’s access to magical reality was controlled by religion or practices alternative to religion – witchcraft, astrology and alchemy. In the time of Renaissance art and literature joined forces with religion. In the XIX and XX centuries new ways of contacting magical reality emerged – cinema, the spiritualist movement and parapsychology. Finally, in the end of the XX and in the beginning of the XXI centuries there appeared interactive computer games and the internet. Psychological studies have shown that in modern people the belief in magical reality didn’t vanish, but descended into subconscious. This hidden belief permeates many domains of modern life – economics, politics, medicine, morality, education, entertainment and theories of modern physics and astronomy. Why do children become addicted to computer games? Why do rational people, when faced with choices in economics, often follow the laws of magic rather than common logic? How does it come about that educated people follow political ideas which contradict the people’s own interests? Why does the placebo effect exist? Where do suicidal terrorists take their courage to commit actions of self-destruction? How is it possible that some people go for moral choices and sacrifice their private interests even when there is no surveillance? Why do some scientists call the work of the brain magical? How was it possible that the whole universe once filled the volume smaller than a grain of sand? Answers to these and other questions are hidden in the subconscious belief of modern people in the supernatural. The rapid advance of interactive electronic devices makes the imaginary world of the supernatural more accessible, and the effect of this magical world on a variety of domains of the modern life grows.
Lykova O. - Paralinguistic indicators of insincerity in speech (on the example of Russian language) c. 38-48


Abstract: The article provides an overview of prosodic and acoustic indicators of deception. The research was conducted based on frequency spectrum analysis of 108 speech fragments, which had been obtained by segmenting the 12-hour long audio recording. Although modeled deception situations are proven to give accurate results in deception detection, the experiment is not a modeled deception situation, which allows greater accuracy by considering involuntary changes in the subject's voice caused by their genuine emotions, such as fear of being exposed. Frequency spectrum analysis of speech fragments showed an increase in pitch frequency of the subject’s speech during deception, compared to their speech in the absence of psychological stress. Data on such markers of deception as response latency changes, rising tone, laughter and filled pauses were also obtained. The cross-cultural study of prosodic and acoustic indicators of deception based on the Russian language is currently of interest, as it allows comparing the obtained results both, with those of foreign researchers, and those gained in modeled deception detection experiments.
Subbotsky E. - The pull of eternity: hope for Immortality as a belief in supernatural c. 41-61


Abstract: This article examines the psychological phenomenon of the hope for immortality of an individual consciousness (soul) of a person and humanity in the context of the most recent experimental research of magical thinking. The universe exists million times longer than humanity, thus it irrelevant to make any forecasts with regards to the fate of humanity, Earth, and universe outside the boundaries of several millennia. Then why do the renowned scholars or even research organizations examine the questions that seemingly do not carry practical sense, such as the future of Earth and universe thousands and billons years from now, study of objects that exists in hundreds of millions light years from our galaxy, fate of humanity over the cosmic time intervals of million years? Possible answer lies in the contemporary research of magical thinking and psychology. These studies demonstrated that the belief in supernatural is common not only to children and superstitious people, but also the majority of educated adults who consider themselves as non-believers in magic or god. This implicit belief feeds our hope for immortality of a person’s mind. The scientific novelty consists in the following: (1) For the first time the phenomenon of hope for immortality of human soul is discussed in the context of recent experimental studies on magical  thinking; (2) the forms, in which the hope for immortality is endued in science, quasi-scientific literature and philosophy, are being analyzed; (3) the article is first to examine the problems of human individual consciousness in the context of recent memory theories. The author concludes that despite the incommensurability of time scales of existence of the universe and humanity, the extensive financial resources are spent on the research of problems associated with the origin of the universe, future of Earth and humanity in millions and billions years from now, and objects that are situated on the edge of the observable universe. Psychological studies of recent decades demonstrated a modern educated individual, while consciously denying faith in magic or in god, subconsciously maintains the belief in supernatural. The data from particle physics and cosmology supports an ancient hypothesis of the unbreakable link between the universe and human consciousness, but does not guarantee the immortality of consciousness. Despite the lack of reliable evidence, the subconscious faith of a modern individual does exist, as well as originates the phenomenon of hope for immortality of consciousness of human and humanity.
Erzin A.I., Semenova T.S. - Stigma as a factor of psychogenic depression among adolescents with homosexuality and bisexuality c. 41-46


Abstract: Adolescence as a period of establishment of sexual identity can be called one of the most complex stages of personality development, entailed with multiple difficulties emerging in such areas as interpersonal interaction and self-conception. Due to the fact that in many modern countries, including Russia, social values and views to this day pathologize and criminalize deviant sexual attraction, teenagers with the diffuse gender identity along with those who consciously refer themselves to homo-and bisexuals, are often forced to face incomprehension, rejection, discrimination, as well as overt bullying by the social environment. According to the literature data, the majority of such teenagers undergo stigmatization that naturally leads to such negative consequences as psychogenic depressions, anxiety and other stress disorders; rapidly increases the risk of autoagressive and suicidal behavior, narcotization and alcoholization, as well as victimization. The goal of this work consists in studying the role of stigma in emergence and manifestation of psychogenic depression among adolescents with homo- and bisexuality. Examinations were conducted on 70 teenagers with homosexual and bisexual orientation aged 12-16. Psychodiagnostic tool contained the Kinsey Scale, developed by the authors brief survey for evaluating the perceived stigma, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory. The results demonstrated that 90% of the examined teenagers were to stigmatization because of their sexual orientation. At the same time, as the analysis has shown, stigmatization plays a significant role in emergence of depression disorders of psychogenic nature among the aforementioned population group. The authors believe that the result of this research can be implemented in further development/modification of the models of psychotherapy and psychosocial support for adolescents suffering from neurotic and affective disorders, substantiated by stigmatization and discrimination due to hatred towards the persons with genderqueer identity.
Subbotsky E. - The Barrier for Robots. Subjective Experience as a Magical Phenomenon c. 44-63


Abstract: The paper discusses problems that arise regarding the relationships between the brain and subjective experience. Can robots create in humans a full-scale illusion of subjective experience? Can a person tell the difference between simulated consciousness and authentic subjective experience? What is better: to enjoy life in the world of illusions, or to live the life of hardships in the world of true reality? The analysis has shown that even if the computer technologies in the future became incommensurably more powerful than the technologies of today, we can’t expect that people with the help of computers, not to mention computers in their own right, would be able to create an authentic copy of human subjective experiences. The reason is that subjective experience is a magical phenomenon. This phenomenon is not determined by physical causes, cannot be logically deduced from more general premises, and therefore, cannot be simulated on a full-scale. The altered states of consciousness such as hallucinations or virtual reality are imitations and not authentic subjective experiences. A person immersed in these altered states of the mind is aware, during the altered states of shortly after, that they are nothing but illusions. Neuroscience and cybernetics will be creating increasingly complex interfaces between machines and subjective reality of consciousness, but the gap between simulations of mental processes and authentic subjective experience will never be bridged.
Pevneva I.V. - Psycholinguistic comparative study of verbal behavior of the Russian and Americans in a conflict situation c. 46-53


Abstract: The subject of this research is the verbal behavior of the representatives of the Russian and American linguistic culture considered within the framework of the basic behavioral strategies in a conflict-generating communication. The phenomenon of conflict and the problem of misunderstanding mostly manifest in all areas of social and interethnic relations. Verbal communication implies a strategic process, which helps a speaker to select the language resources for its realization. Reference to the strategy contributes to the accomplishment of goals and tasks of the dialogue participants, making the communication process either successful or leading to a communicative conflict. The object of this research is the natural communication. The scientific novelty consists in carrying out a multifaceted cross-cultural examination of the impact of ethnocultural, gender and other traits of the participants of communication upon the choice of the verbal communication means in a conflict. The results of the work can be valuable or the participants of international academic exchange (students and educators), as well as those whose activity relates to the work in a polycultural Russian-American space.
Subbotsky E. - Vygotsky-Luria approach towards “Conscious Action” and current research on “Executive Function” c. 48-74


Abstract: In this work the author compares the research of conscious action in the context of the Vygotsky and Luria theory, and modern research on executive function. With few exceptions the modern research in the West conceptualizes the notion of “executive function” independently from its original meaning established by Vygotsky and Luria, and in an ever increasing manner is being viewed as a function, or directly governed by neuronal processes taking place in the brain, or as a complex, “context-free” cognitive construct. But such approach towards willful behavior is contradicted by empirically established facts: high dependency of the level of willfulness of behavior experienced from the content of instruction and from culture in which the research is conducted. The scientific novelty of this research is substantiated by the fact that this work is first to compare the approach of Vygotsky and Luria on conscious action with the modern concept of executive action based on experimental research and practical work with children.
Subbotsky E. - Consciousness as a Look into the Supernatural c. 55-74


Abstract: The hypothesis is analysed according to which consciousness is the ability to simultaneously live in two types of reality: perceived everyday reality and invisible magical reality. At some point around 100 thousands years ago, humans became aware of the inevitability of personal death and developed the idea of afterlife – the reality in which spirits of dead ancestors dwell. They also discovered that the spirits have unusual properties: they are invisible, immortal, can read people’s minds and feed on smoke from burning sacrificed animals. Due to these discoveries humans became able to look at their everyday world from another perspective and were surprised that their world was designed very differently from the world of ancestral spirits. That was the moment when consciousness as we know it was born: the ability to view the everyday reality “out of the box”, from the perspective of gods. This ability of reflection gave rise to new forms of behaviour: Executively controlled action and moral behaviour. Around 30 thousand years ago people developed the way to tangibly represent the invisible world of spirits through signs and symbols, such as cave paintings or figurines made from stone and bone. At the same time, or shortly afterwards, people started using symbolic means for utilitarian purposes, for example, for memorising the number of killed animals or manufactured items of clothes. Eventually, symbolic reality gives birth to written language and mathematics. But the emergence of consciousness, along with achievements, also created psychological problems. The main of these problems was keeping everyday and magical realities apart. In order to make this possible, humans developed a new psychological mechanism: the “effort of realities distinguishing” (ERD).” It took millennia for the ERD to achieve the level of perfection it has in modern humans. Like the heartbeat, the ERD in modern humans is automatized and subconscious. Disturbances of the RDE reveal themselves in such forms as hallucinations or religious radicalism. Recent psychological studies showed that the early humans’ belief in the supernatural lives on in the subconscious of modern rational people.
Suedfeld P., Rank D., Halliwell J., Buckley N.D. - Psychosocial aspects of spaceflight and aging c. 56-72


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the examination of application of the research on aging, particularly, in the area of geriatric psychology for resolution of the tasks that space psychology is faced with. This refers to legitimate distribution of the results of analysis of psychosocial aspects of people in retirement homes in the areas, associated with examination of astronauts’ behavior that are placed in the confinement of spacecraft during a long-duration flight. Special attention is given to determination of similarity between the stressogenic factors and psychological responses of both groups. The work demonstrates that despite the formal differences between the groups, the psychosocial aspects of existence in confined environment of the older people and astronauts (specificities of the surrounding environment, stress factors, types of psychological responses, methods of reducing the stressogenic influence of the environment, building up resistance to stress, etc.), are considerably similar. The results acquired in the area of geriatric psychology and sociology can play an important role in forecasting space behavior, due to the fact that it allows identifying the yet uncounted psychological risks, which mostly likely will emerge with the increasing endurance of spaceflights, as well as suggest practical preventative measures.    
Smolina T.L., Melnikova A.A. - Auto-stereotypes of the Russians: psychological research c. 62-70


Abstract: The subject of this article is the national auto-stereotypes of Russians. Perestroika and the subsequent social transformation significantly influenced the collective representation, touching upon the system of ethnic identity, the structure of which includes the ethnic auto-stereotypes. The need for examine the direction of transformation of the Russian ethnic stereotype defined the subject of this article. The authors conduct a theoretical and empirical analysis of the semantic content of auto-stereotypes of the Russians. The empirical study contained the two methods of collecting information: projective drawing and survey. The scientific novelty is first and foremost determined by the combination of methods, which allowed examining not only the conscious auto-stereotypical representations, but also the unconscious that are difficult to verbalize. The acquired result confirmed the appropriateness of such approach, having demonstrated the considerable variations between the conscious and unconscious auto-stereotypes of the Russians. While according to the data from surveys the respondents describe their countrymen as positive overall, the processing of projective drawings illustrate that the unconscious auto-stereotypes of the Russian rather have an extensive number of negative connotations.
Парамонова А.А. - The Psychoanalytic Discourse in Russia about a Child Growing up in the Second Decade of the Twentieth century (Celebrating the Centennial of the Child Psychoanalysis Establishment in Russia)


Аннотация: 1. The psychoanalysis ideas of the early twentieth century in Russia had been distributed among a wide range of professionals; psychoanalytic concepts of S. Freud and his followers had been used by Russian doctors, teachers and psychologists for the systematic investigation of children in order to study their early mental development and the process of their socialization.2. Understanding of the child's mental life in its foundations in the study of Russian psychoanalysts such as M. Wolf, I.D. Ermakov, V.F. Schmidt, S. Spielrein, etc. does not contradict the cultural-historical theory ideas of L.S. Vygotsky. The shift of focus towards the child's constitutional development study is balanced by the analysts understanding of the environment creation necessary for their socialization, and practical recommendations for teachers and educators. 3. Many ideas of Russian analysts regarding the child's development anticipated the ideas of Western ones, but they were interrupted by the historical conditions of Russia development in the 1920s. 4. Social and cultural conditions in Russia of the 1920s and 1930s prevented psychoanalytic ideas developing further because of the acute demands of reality: the country’s social situation crisis, the necessity to develop fast effective psychological means of help for a child and a teacher, the lack of the required number of experts in this field, a large number of children and other problems.5. The restoration and interpretation of Russian psychoanalysts' ideas in the 1920s in the field of childhood are important for modern researchers. On the basis of this material they understand the uniqueness of the historical development path of domestic psychological knowledge about a child and the introduction of psychoanalytic ideas in the field of child development into the modern psychological knowledge circulation.
Subbotsky E. - Impossible Phenomena as Mediators in Cognitive Functioning and Education c. 156-173


Abstract: The manuscript assesses the role of impossible phenomena (entities and events) as psychological tools for enhancing cognitive functioning. In three studies, participants were exposed to films containing either impossible or contrasting possible phenomena, and then tested on creativity, the ability to distinguish fantasy from reality, and the ability to memorize commercial brands placed within films. In all of the studies, participants (British 4-, 6- and 8-year-old children, adolescents and adults) showed a significantly better improvement in the aforementioned abilities after watching the film with impossible phenomena than after watching the film with contrasting possible phenomena. For the first time the images of impossible (fantasy) phenomena is being viewed as the means to affect cognitive abilities (thoughts, perception, and memory) for the purpose of optimizing cognitive functionality. The results are discussed in terms of possible applications of impossible phenomena in a classroom.
Арон И.С. - The social situation of development of a modern teenager


Аннотация: The research subject is the detection of the typical age, socio-cultural and individual characteristics of the social situation of development of a modern teenager, on the basis of conceptual regulations of the cultural and historical psychology on the dynamics of a child’s mental development. The methodological and practical value of Vygotsky's concept of "social situation of development" is substantiated. On the basis of the analysis of researches by domestic psychologists, directed on the identification of the substantial structure of the social situation of development, the author designates objective and subjective components of the social situation of development. There with, the special role of a subjective component of the social situation of the development defining the personality activity degree concerning the environment influences is accented. The results of the theoretical analysis of a social context, and also of subjective aspects of the social situation of development of modern teenagers, are presented. It is noted that the main age-typical characteristics of the social situation of development of a teenager are aspirations to join the outside world of adults and age-mates, and behaviour orientation to norms and values of this world. The socio-cultural characteristics of the social situation of development of a modern teenager are caused by the influence of numerous factors, mainly those of negative content. Individual factors of the development of teenagers also quite often have negative psychological content. That is confirmed by the author, from examples of the content analysis of the social situation of development of teenagers without parental support, teenagers with deviant behaviour and teenagers with endowments signs. The conclusion of the need for the optimization of the social situation of development of a modern teenager is drawn.
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