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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal
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Human talents’ structure from musical prospective

Кирнарская Дина Константиновна

доктор искусствоведения, доктор психологических наук

проректор, заведующая кафедрой, член Союза композиторов России, Российская академия музыки им. Гнесиных

121069, Россия, г. Москва, ул. Полтавская, 30/36

Kirnarskaya Dina Konstantinovna

Professor, Head of the department of History of Music, Member of the Union of Composers of the Russian Federation, Gnessin Russian Academy of Music

121069, Russia, Moscow, Poltavskaya Street 30/36

kirnarskiy@gmail.com
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2453-613X.2014.1.11506

Дата направления статьи в редакцию:

26-08-2014


Дата публикации:

09-09-2014


Аннотация.

The purpose of this paper is to present a universal model for human talent following the example of musical talent. Psychological categories used to describe high achievements' potential - ‘abilities', ‘giftedness', ‘talent', ‘creativity', ‘intelligence' and ‘motivation' - are shown as parts and elements of an organized structure. A more detailed model for musical talent is constructed where familiar psychological categories reveal their sub-components, such as sense of rhythm, pitch and memory for musical ability or productive imagination and architectonic ear for musical giftedness. Musical motivation is associated with expressive ear origi¬nating from communication signals of early man. Three musical tests, helping to distinguish psychological resources of music lover versus active music amateur or professional musician, are presented. The testing system for music made possible: 1) to discover a future music lover in a child and thus invite her/him to music school (according to longitudinal study done from 2001 to 2009 with first-and second-graders, these children extremely rarely drop out); 2) to give the opportunity to those with professional music potential to reveal it and choose a career in music; 3) to pinpoint future winners of music competitions before the competition starts; 4) to predict future success or failure of musi¬cal prodigies when they are still before their teens. Finally, the author suggests the new structure for our basic talents with motiva-tional, operational and creative ‘blocks' functionally similar to their ‘musical counterparts'. Presumably, that could be the model for each of H.Gardner's ‘multiple intelligences' form-ing human talents spectrum. Isn't it possible to use the newly constructed model as a clue to testing practice for other talents outside music? That makes a socially relevant goal for future research in vocational psychology.

Ключевые слова: musical prospective, human talent, signals, expressive, professional music potential, music competitions, motivational, creative, musical counterparts, multiple intelligences
Библиография
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Ilyin, E. (2004) Psikhologia individualnikh razlichii/The Psychology of Individual Dif-ferences. St.-Petersburg: Piter.
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Kirnarskaya, D. (2006) Teoreticheskie osnovi i metodi otsenki muzikalnoi odarennos-ti/Theoretical Foundations and Methods of Testing of Musical Giftedness. St.Petersburg: St.Petersburg University.
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Kirnarskaya, D., Winner, E. (1999) Musical Ability in a New Key: Exploring the Ex-pressive Ear for Music. Psychomusicology, 16, 2-16.
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Kirnarskaya, D. (1995) Music-language ability as a component of musical talent. In The First East-West Conference in General Psychology, pp. 298-303. Banska Bystrica: Matej Bel University.
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Kirnarskaya, D. (1992) Opyt testirovaniya muzykal'noi odarennosti na vstupitel'nyh ekzamenah/Musical giftedness’ testing at the conservatory entering examinations. Voprosy psihologii, 1-2, 158-63.
13.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1989) Muzykal'no-yazykovaya sposobnost' kak komponent muzykal'noi odarennosti/Music-language ability as the component of musical giftedness. Voprosy psihologii, 2, 47-56.
14.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1988) Sovremennie predstavleniya o muzykal'nyh posobnos-tyah/Contemporary views on musical abilities. Voprosy psihologii, 2, 137-47.
15.
Krutetsky, V. (1998) Psikhologia matematicheskikh sposobnostei shkolnikov/The psychology of schoolchildren’s mathematical abilities, Moscow: Institut prakticheskoi psikhologii, p.27-28.
16.
Manturzewska, M. (1994) Les facteurs psychologiques dans le développement musical et l'évolution des musiciens professionnels. In Psychologie de la musique, (ed. A.Zenatti), Presses Universitaire de France
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Renzulli, J.S. (1978) What Makes Giftedness? Reexamining a Definition. Phi Delta Kappan, 60(3), 180-84, 261.
18.
Siegler, R. S. and Kotovsky, K. (1986) Two levels of giftedness: shall ever the twain meet? In Conceptions of giftedness, (ed. R. J. Sternberg and J. E. Davidson). Cambridge University Press.
19.
Simonton, D.K. (1999) Talent and its development: an emergenic and epigenetic mod-el. Psychological Review, 106 (3), 435-57.
20.
Peretz, I. (2006) The nature of music from a biological perspective. Cognition, 100, 1-32.
21.
Petsche, H. (1996) Approaches to verbal, visual and musical creativity by EEG coher-ence analysis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 24, 145-59.
22.
Sloboda, J. A. (1996) The acquisition of musical performance expertise: deconstructing the `talent' account of individual differences in musical expressivity. In The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, (ed. K. A. Er-icsson). Erlbaum.
23.
Sloboda, J. A., Davidson, J. W., Howe, M. J. A., and Moore, D. G. (1996) The role of practice in the development of performing musicians. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 287-309.
24.
Torff, B. and Winner, E. (1994) Don't throw out the baby with the bath water. The Psychologist, 7, 361-2.
25.
Winner, E. (2000) The origins and ends of giftedness. American Psychologist, 55, 159-69.
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Winner, E. (1996) Gifted children. New York: Basic Books.
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Winner, E. (1996) The rage to master: the decisive role of talent in the visual arts. In The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, (ed. K. A. Ericsson). Erlbaum.
References (transliterated)
1.
Ceci, S. J. and Liker, J. (1986) A day at the races: a study of IQ, expertise and cogni-tive complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 115, 255-66.
2.
Gagné F. (2004a). An imperative, but, alas, improbable consensus! Roeper Review, 27, 12-14.
3.
Gagné, F. (2004b). Transforming gifts into talents: the DMGT as a developmental theo-ry. High Ability Studies, 15, 119-41.
4.
Gardner, H. (1997) Extraordinary minds. New York: Basic Books
5.
Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of mind. London: Heinemann.
6.
Ericsson, K. A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P., and Hoffman, R. R. (eds.) (2006) Cam-bridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni-versity Press.
7.
Ilyin, E. (2004) Psikhologia individualnikh razlichii/The Psychology of Individual Dif-ferences. St.-Petersburg: Piter.
8.
Kirnarskaya, D. (2009) The Natural Musician: on Abilities, Giftedness and Talent. Ox-ford University Press, Oxford, UK.
9.
Kirnarskaya, D. (2006) Teoreticheskie osnovi i metodi otsenki muzikalnoi odarennos-ti/Theoretical Foundations and Methods of Testing of Musical Giftedness. St.Petersburg: St.Petersburg University.
10.
Kirnarskaya, D., Winner, E. (1999) Musical Ability in a New Key: Exploring the Ex-pressive Ear for Music. Psychomusicology, 16, 2-16.
11.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1995) Music-language ability as a component of musical talent. In The First East-West Conference in General Psychology, pp. 298-303. Banska Bystrica: Matej Bel University.
12.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1992) Opyt testirovaniya muzykal'noi odarennosti na vstupitel'nyh ekzamenah/Musical giftedness’ testing at the conservatory entering examinations. Voprosy psihologii, 1-2, 158-63.
13.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1989) Muzykal'no-yazykovaya sposobnost' kak komponent muzykal'noi odarennosti/Music-language ability as the component of musical giftedness. Voprosy psihologii, 2, 47-56.
14.
Kirnarskaya, D. (1988) Sovremennie predstavleniya o muzykal'nyh posobnos-tyah/Contemporary views on musical abilities. Voprosy psihologii, 2, 137-47.
15.
Krutetsky, V. (1998) Psikhologia matematicheskikh sposobnostei shkolnikov/The psychology of schoolchildren’s mathematical abilities, Moscow: Institut prakticheskoi psikhologii, p.27-28.
16.
Manturzewska, M. (1994) Les facteurs psychologiques dans le développement musical et l'évolution des musiciens professionnels. In Psychologie de la musique, (ed. A.Zenatti), Presses Universitaire de France
17.
Renzulli, J.S. (1978) What Makes Giftedness? Reexamining a Definition. Phi Delta Kappan, 60(3), 180-84, 261.
18.
Siegler, R. S. and Kotovsky, K. (1986) Two levels of giftedness: shall ever the twain meet? In Conceptions of giftedness, (ed. R. J. Sternberg and J. E. Davidson). Cambridge University Press.
19.
Simonton, D.K. (1999) Talent and its development: an emergenic and epigenetic mod-el. Psychological Review, 106 (3), 435-57.
20.
Peretz, I. (2006) The nature of music from a biological perspective. Cognition, 100, 1-32.
21.
Petsche, H. (1996) Approaches to verbal, visual and musical creativity by EEG coher-ence analysis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 24, 145-59.
22.
Sloboda, J. A. (1996) The acquisition of musical performance expertise: deconstructing the `talent' account of individual differences in musical expressivity. In The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, (ed. K. A. Er-icsson). Erlbaum.
23.
Sloboda, J. A., Davidson, J. W., Howe, M. J. A., and Moore, D. G. (1996) The role of practice in the development of performing musicians. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 287-309.
24.
Torff, B. and Winner, E. (1994) Don't throw out the baby with the bath water. The Psychologist, 7, 361-2.
25.
Winner, E. (2000) The origins and ends of giftedness. American Psychologist, 55, 159-69.
26.
Winner, E. (1996) Gifted children. New York: Basic Books.
27.
Winner, E. (1996) The rage to master: the decisive role of talent in the visual arts. In The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, (ed. K. A. Ericsson). Erlbaum.
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