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ГЛАВНАЯ > Журнал "Исследования космоса" > Рубрика "Науки о жизни и космос"
Науки о жизни и космос
Ichijo T., Yamaguchi N., Tanigaki F., Shirakawa M., Nasu M. - Four-year bacterial monitoring in the International Space Station - Japanese Experiment Module «Kibo» with culture-independent approach c. 1-14

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2016.1.20495

Abstract: Studies on the relationships between humans and microbes in space habitation environments are critical for success in long-duration space missions, to reduce potential hazards to the crew and the spacecraft infrastructure. We performed microbial monitoring in the Japanese Experiment Module “Kibo”, a part of the International Space Station, for 4 years after its completion, and analyzed samples with modern molecular microbiological techniques. Sampling was performed in September 2009, February 2011, and October 2012. The surface of the incubator, inside the door of the incubator, an air intake, air diffuser, and handrail were selected as sampling sites. Sampling was performed using the optimized swabbing method. Abundance and phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria on the interior surfaces of Kibo were determined by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively. Bacteria in the phyla Proteobacteria (γ-subclass) and Firmicutes were frequently detected on the interior surfaces in Kibo. Families Staphylococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were dominant. Most bacteria detected belonged to the human microbiota; thus, we suggest that the bacterial cells are transferred to the surfaces in Kibo from the astronauts. Environmental bacteria such as Legionella spp. were also detected. From the data on bacterial abundance and phylogenetic affiliation, Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, the microbial community structure in Kibo may change with prolonged stay of astronauts. Continuous monitoring is required to obtain information on changes in the microbial community structure in Kibo.
Syudfeld P., Rank D., Khallivell D., Bakli N. - Psycho-social aspects of spaceflight and aging

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.2.23131

Abstract: Many places on Earth have been used as analogs of space vehicles, with the goal of understanding the pressures and stresses of a long-duration spaceflight such as a round-trip voyage to Mars. One of these is the situation common to many of the aged, especially those who live in group housing: planned communities, assisted living centers, or nursing homes. This paper looks at the lessons that space psychology and geriatric psychology can teach each other. Traditionally, both the literature on aging and that on spaceflight have focused on the problems that their population of interest experiences, and on what can be done to alleviate the negative effects of those problems – or, more familiarly, on countermeasures. The problems are due to or mediated by, stress, which is a common factor in both literatures.There are many common factors related to successful aging and successful spaceflight. Increased cross-flow of ideas between the two research communities would be fruitful.
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