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Meapoo ocapce





,

125993, , . , , 49

Kurakin Aleksei Valentinovich

Doctor of Law

professor of the Department of Administrative and Information Law at Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125993, Russia, Moskva oblast', g. Moscow, ul. 125993, Moskva, Leningradskii, 49

kurakinaleksey@gmail.com

 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2306-9945.2014.1.11051

:



:

1-2-2014


.

copeex coao-ooecx oecx cox Poccca eepa coac oeco o . Oo poe, oopa ceceo pece ee ox ocapcex peopaoa, a paa aoe epec ecx pex , aoecx opaa ocapceo ac pae, ec poea opp. a poea apaaa e epec ocapc paec a ce oe pa a ocapceoc. Bcece opp pa oeco , ooa oco ocapceoo cepeea eoo pa cc, pe opa aepa ep. o c ocapca ac ex coco a co oaa ec op e coo-pao ee, oo opae ee oco, ae e ee ce ocapceoo pae. , Poccco eepa pe eapox oaae eapoo-paoe , o cepe op oppe ccee ocapceo c.

: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract.

In the modern social, economic and political situation, the Russian Federation is now facing many threats and challenges. One of the problems, which forms a significant obstacle in the way of many public reforms, violates rights and lawful interests of natural persons and legal entities interacting with the government administration bodies is the corruption.  This problem influenced the public interests throughout the history of development of human civilization and statehood.  Due to corruption many empires have fallen and the fundamentals of state sovereignty of many states were undermined, great moral and material damage was caused. That is why for the sake of its own survival the state government has to fight this negative social and legal matter, which undermines its fundamentals and makes the system of state administration inefficient.  It is noted in the article that the membership of the Russian Federation in the number of international organizations puts on it many international legal obligations, including those in the sphere of fighting corruption in the public service system.

Keywords:

corruption, counteraction, service, system, official, administrative law, regulation, influence, ethics, standard

Hop eapoo paa, ao cepe caaac, paec eop pa aoaoo aooaeca pa , o, oopoe cooece eapoo-paoo . pao, op eapooo paa pa aoee oa , oope acoee cec pe oeo peoe (oee). , co cooec opa oe pa , eapox , ae co paaco , oope pax cpaax oao poe.

poea opp ccee ocapceo c, ae ccee ocapceo pae, ecoo, ao poee oocc. Kopp a oo pacaoao, cpa eco, oeoe peaa coe poopao eeoc ocapceo aapae apex , eoopx oopx pcx. o c a oa aao oeee c eapooo , ae oex pooec opp, ae caoe poax oee ocapcex [10, . 456] .

Ho pa, o opeeee oe a apae cea. , paax Copeca ocapc ece oex aoo, apae pooec opp. cooecx oppoe caap oee, o cocao ac acpao-paooo ocapceoo caeo ae . oo acoee Poccca eepa ooe aco pa eapox aoppox oe, coc . eo peoa eapox ao cepe pooec opp eoxoo ece c acpao oeceoc pecx paoape, ae coepecoa eapoe exa peaa apee ca e cea, xpa eee cpeca ocpax aax, pacooex peea eppop Poccco eepa.

oeaec ao aoppox oee ocapcex paacx oa cpaac ocoa eapox peoa cepe pooec opp. o c aoppox peoa oe oo caoo ocapceoo caeo, eo ce (cp (cpa) ee, poee, pa cecep). c, e poce ocapceoo caeo o ae oee, oe apoao a oacoe coae pc. Pocccoe aooaeco pooec opp coep p , oope o (cpa) ecoepeoee e, o epe cooece oaeca Poccco eepa cepe pooec opp. oex aeop oocx ccee ocapceo c o oe eecoopao cao ooex aoppooo xapaepa acaxc x poceo [10, . 456] .

Pacpa eoxoo oe, o Poccco eepa pe eapox oaae eapoo-paoe , o cepe op oppe ccee ocapceo c. oepee o - paa 2006 . Koe Opaa Oeex Ha opp [18] . o c o popex cceoa op oppe ccee ocapceo c Poccco eepa eapooo paa, coepax acpao-paoe cpeca pepee opp.

Peaa eapox pepee opp ccee ocapceo c , o «ea opa oppe eooa oo paax aooaeca, a pao » [3, . 92-97] .

o eepa 25 eap 2008 . « pooec opp»[19] opeee, o Poccca eepa cooec eapo ooopa Poccco eepa () ocoe pa copae oac pooec opp ocpa ocapca, paooxpae opaa cea ca, ae eapo opaa ex:

• caoe , oopeaex () pece, ecoaxoe, ae ecoaxoe px , oppo pece;

• e , oeoo peae coepe paoape caeo cpeco coepe;

• peocae aeax peeo opao cceoa cep;

• opae opoca pooec opp;

• eeoc opp ope oppe.

o peaa acpao-paox pepee opp ccee ocapceo c Poccco eepa eoxoo coepecoa exa eapooo copeca, eeapaeo eapoo-paoe oe, , apaee oppe.

«…Aa aoec eapoo paox - xapaep ep copeeoo pa» [20, . 28] .

Coaco Koc Pocc, ae eapoe o aex pa eapooo copeca, cococ eapox ace ocapcex eocapcex , o ace ceo paa. Kpoe , eapoe (oe) pa epocee cepe a eoea, oecee paoopa, , , ope oppe ccee ocapceo c.

eapoo-paox aoee cecea ex cepax acpao-paooo pepoa,
oe cee eoxoo coacoae eapooo paa [15, . 17] .

, o pope , eoxoo oeee eapooo epoecoo , opa oppe ccee ocapceo c.

o cepe oe ocecc paox opaaox epop:

- poe opp, ax poee op oppe;

- cocaee aoax aoax, opax, eoax, cpecax pepee opp ccee ocapceo c;

- apo, oope acoa epopx ope oppe, ae papaoe aoppox oee ocapcex poee aoppox paox . [21, . 41]

eapoo-paox ao Opaa Oeex Ha, aa, Meapoo aoo , Bcepo opo opaa, Epoecoo coa, epoa, Copeca px e oeae, o opp pecae coo , acoee pee aoax pa ooece cce [22] .

o pa e-paox pepee opp ccee ocapceo c , o opp acaec eaooo oa eex , ae eppopa. Meapooe cooeco ecoo cpeeoo oocx eo cee, oocx , aax oc, a eapox opaax, cooecx .

epecee e oeo eoxooc ocece eapoo copeca cepe opp [23,. 206].

Hecop , o eapooe cooeco cpec coa epcax paox opaaox exao opp, oope e pocx paox opaaox opp ccee ocapceo c. a cococe opp oo cooece , , ae opaax[10, . 456].

eapooe oeco eeo aaoc coacoao o cepe a opp , eapooo paa cepe. oea, eapoa poeo opp po copec o cepe. ocee opecco, , ocex ao poee. eapoo-paox oeo, apaex pooece opp cepe ocapceoo pae, ae ccee ocapceo c [24, . 5] .

Ho ae oe, o opp ccee ocapceo c eoxoa ceo paooxpaeo . aaoe ocoeo , o a opp eppop opeoo , ocapco e aepecoao e opp , ae eapoe epoece cpeca op ec oo. Kopp cococe ecx pecx , opae ocapceoo , cae paopee, ae aoc ocoa [24, . 5] .

« Pocc oo oepca 20 50% p. cceoa Epoecoo peocp pa : e 45% opoex eceo epao Bocoo - oa paa, o 80% x caa, o oee c apa» [7, . 84] .

oea C oeca 1998 . coca 30 [25,. 7-8] . epe ceaco eapoa opp aoc , cooec, a eae cooc poeo. oe ocpax . ep aee . Ba opo ce oae ocapce ca. Kopp ocapcex poe pae [14, . 136] . Hop paa, oppe, paac, oop o, o eoxoe paoe opaaoe exa op oppe eapoo poe . acoc, paox peceoa oex , aax oeco ea , eaeo . C ep p « eeoc peo» (1977) [1] , poe , C acaa aoo ocapca.

oaoc poe opp ccee ocapceo c o, o eapooe XX . papaaa paoe op opaaoe cpeca, pepeee peceee opp cepe oo pae ocapceo c [6, . 8] .

oepee o oo oeo ao : Meapo oec oee ocapcex oocx (12 eap 1996 .), OO
« ope oppe oeco oepecx » (16 eap 1996 .), Meapoa Koe OO opp (31 op 2003 .), Peo OO «Kopp oo» (24 apa 1990 .), Koe Coea Epo «O ooo oeceoc opp» (27 ap 1999 .), Koe Coea Epo « -paoo oeceoc opp» (4 op 1999 .), Moe « ope oppe» ( Meapaeco - aco CH 3 ape 1999 . 13-4).

Ha oppe pao apae ax oeo, a: oee oocx oepa paoopa (17 eap 1979 .), o (8 a 1979 .) . x ocac opp, oeco, paee opopa, ocpea ac o copoa.

, o Poccca oope oeo papoaa, , pae oeo poccco aooaece. oaaeo ee po P 2003 . a aaa, a oca . P oca a aaa x Poccco eepa ce , oope oeo, acaxc op oppe ccee ocapceo c (Koe Coea Epo ooo oeceoc opp, Meapoo Koe OO opp .).

, o -paox coepc o opp. Kopp a ooee opopax , opao, opp . «oe opeeee opp, a pao, coe opeoo -paooo » [2, . 83] . pao OO eapoo ope oppe , o «opp - ocapceo ac oe o ex» [14, . 136] .

ee oeo, poee op oppe, ooe , o coep aeoe acpaoo paa, oope peaep opaaoo-paeece ace peaa coae. acoc, opa acpaoo paa peaepec oeex , pax oppe, copoa oe cooeceo ooopa (oe), caaac paeecx , aac copeca, opeec , ( opo) coepe eoopx oe (ooopa, )[15, . 17, 4, . 281] .

, Koe OO pooec opp (31 2003 .) , o ocapco- cpec poo oe cooecx paox oeo acpax e opeee aeaoc o opp op .

Coaco Koe OO ocapco- , aeax cooec ocoooaa pa coe paoo cce, aa, pe cce pea pao, , poxoe c, poe ce xoa oca paacx , px epaex .

aa Koe OO: ocoaec ao pep, a epeoc pao; poep ooo apo a ooce, oope o opp, poa ax apo ; cococe aeaeo cpaex o po ooecoo pa -aca; cococe ocece popa, , o ae a peoa , opocoecoo aeaeo , ae oeceae ceapoa aea , , oope oppe . cepe ocapcex , pae aca, o oeoc , pcoeec acoe Koe, oc ae -paoe acpae ep, ae o opeoac, cooec ocoooaa pa peeo aooaeca, , o oece coxpaoc , , oea, pacxoo oxoo, aca ao oea; poee acpae poep, , oe epoece oe opp o [10, . 456] .

Koe acpao-paoe opaaoe exa copeca cepe op oppe ccee ocapceo c. acoc, opeec exa -pao opoca, ca oppe, oopa acpax px , paex aaopeeoo e pece oppooo xapaepa.

oce aeo copeco MB, peceee . Baoece ape oea ocecec epe e , apex ococax Moce, paax p opaa o epa, C, a, , Tp . copeca C oo coeco eppop C eaoax , paeax oop poccc paaa, e ooee ocapceo ce[26] .

1989 . Opaa O Ha eapo opp cepe ocapceoo pae, oopoo cepeo o poe VIII opecce OO.

o opecc, ooec Coa caa peoea: « opp ocapcex oe cec oea eoc cex o popa, pae coa po p , ce , o :

1) aeaoc coeo aooaeca, poeccae , o opp cooece ca, oope oecea ;

2) papaoa acpae exa exa pepoa opp ac, oope o : papao ope oppe aece pope ooecoo pa, oope co oepe ee ope oppe a eoee ac cooecx ; oee oceoeoc pae ooac ocapce oeceee ex ; pex pae peex op oppe; pee oecee , ex capx paoo a ocapcex ; eoxoo coepecoae aocx exao epeoo, oex peae opp.

3) poep e, pacceoa ;

4) paoe ooe oca , popeex eeoc, pe ca pep, opp»[27, . 18] .

op oppe VIII O opae paoape (, 1990 .). , oaaeo «Kopp cepe ocapceoo pae», oooeoe «paece op oppe» pa oece pacpocpaee[9, . 22] .

eapoo ope oppe Epo, e ope 1996 . ope oppe, 20 poox pax ope oppe (6 op 1997 .), cpo ce ocapca ao peopae ope oppe[10, . 456].

popa Coeo Epo oooe: Koe ooo oeceoc opp Koe -paoo oeceoc opp. o o «opp», oeax, , a Koe Epoecoo coa ope opp - eo 26 a 1997 . Koe ope ocpax ae oepecx 17 eap 1997 .

ooo oe , o ceo opp coc paoo , o pao eecoopa Koe ooo opp 1998 . oe opp cxo peeo aooaeca - aco[11, . 129], Koe -paoo 1999 . opeeee acoe .

Koe ooo Cpacpe 4 1998 . opa oca 27 1999 . 2006 . 30 . Poccca ocaa op oca ocoa pacope peea Pocc 25 1999 . oe Poccco eepae [28].

2006 .
6 ocapca-ea Epocoa (, epa, , , , pa).

aa coco pea : « epo», «Mep, o aoao poe», «Kopo », «Meapoo copeco - », «aee ooe» ocoe ox pax paox oxoo pooo e, : coca opp, oea copoa coepea ooc a , ocpax , co, a accae, ; coca cepe ; ; oxoo, oex coepe opp, cepe . Kpoe , poeccaoo paa, acaec oee ceapoax , pecx , , a ceee[10, . 456].

Heoxoo oe, o « -paoo » 1999 . C 9 1999 . opa 4 1999 . Copoa o - e Coea Epo, , , papaoe. 1999 . coco pex : «, aoao poe», «Meapoo copeco », «aee ooe». coppoao aoe opp: «opp poc, , a oee, , eaeaeo , aox, caa , oeee, , eaeae epce aox».

1999 . cee opoc:

· Copoa coe pee aooaece , pao , oecx opp, oe ooo oee epa;

· aoe oe aepa , e o eaepa ;

· Copoa coe pee aooaece cee , , o oea : oe pep peopae opp; oec ; cece -cecea opp aece ;

· Copoa coe pee aooaece poep, ooe a, oec opp, a ocece , oee , Copoa ocapco - ace ; oo coe pee aooaece , o oee eaec oe , coceo ce;

· Copoa aooaece, o ooee , opp, eece peco , aea eopaao , e ocoa opp cooa oee a ;

· Copoa coeo aooaeca oa , o cocac paoe ecoe ooe, poep oaaec paaco , eae opp.

« paaco » oae pecope ocapcex . , . 9 , C pae aea eopaao , e ocoa opp cooa oee a . epa, ecoo, cococoa pecee opp ccee ocapceo c Poccco eepa.

« -paoo » copeco , paac copooco ea opp: oeo, oee oaaec , pc, ocpax pacxoo cooec ooe ooopo eapoo copece -paoo oepeco cepax, , cooec aooaeco.

ocapco, ocao Koe , ce c aoaec eo opp coee , po op oppe paox oeo, px Coeo Epo cooec opp[29, . 27].

oea, Poccca ocaa a , oe, a opoc, pepoae , ceaoo aa opp, apep, . 168 P «Heeceoc ce, cooece ao », . 169 P « , coepeo , ocoa paoopa », . 59 P « ».

opp ccee ocapceo c eapoe opaa (, Epo .) aec exaa opopoa px ope oppe, paox x ce . Kpoe , eoxoo ooppoa pax epoooo poa oeca x oeo, apaex pepeee peceee opp. poae opax oeo oec cepe oo pae. pece oe oo pa, oac paoo , op oppe, a [30, . 14-16, 12, . 195].

o , opaa ae epoece opaa, aepecoae ope oppe, epee ocapceoo pae oec (ecoo) oee ocapcex . p coepaee oec oee ocapcex ox a eoxooc papao oe oec oee ocapcex [30, . 14-16, 12, . 195]. oee ocapcex caapo poee peop ocapceo c cpaax, ecoo oee oo apee opax [13, . 174].

cee opa ae Coea Epo ao apae. , 2000 . Coea Epo R (2000) 10, oopo peo - eo Epo - cooec aooaeco pa ocapceoo pae oec oee . Opao oc oee [5, . 34, 24] .

Epoec oee ecapo ope oppe coca exae peaa pooec opp. aaa oee acac [5, . 34, 24]. oee peoeoac ce , ocecc acpae peop, peop ocapceo c. coe cppe oee opae , peaepe opo , ceo , pocpoco ocapceo c. , peoea aooaece ocapceo paaco ce Poccco eepa. coepecoa acpao-pao peaa.

Heoxoo oep, aee oeca oee , papaoaoo Epo, , a , eco o , opoc cepe oo pae caaae oe peoa opp cepe ocapceo c[5, . 35, 24].

aee ccee ocapceo c . poccc pao . ep, «ac o pcoe paa, pace aopeo. oo cae, ocoeoc ac, oa co oeee, , aco . ec ooee. cx ca ocopoe , - peeca, ..»[16, . 368] . aae XX . .. Ecpao aa oaoc ococo coe [31, . 116]. «, ceece eo caeo, o opcx , o opaee c ca ocapceo pee, aapae , coe paoc opa apo, cpeoc »[17, . 122].

oe eecoopao ex , apex caap oee ax «Koece oee ax Poccco eepa». Heoxooc p aooaeoo apea, , oeae . Ke, «…pao acoe oa, coepa , eoc»[8, . 42]. oecee eoxoo pecope capo acpao .

Paa ec, ae , oeee ocapceoo caeo caec aoe , coae peoc () , ce, , , , ocaac ca, eaoo ceoe ooee. ceo eeoc, oooc , opae apeo, caoex ocapceoo caeo aooaeco pooec opp.

paaco cae aaeoo cee aoppoo a, peopae peooe . pecae cae oaa cex opae e ax- coe coepe paoape. Heoxooc oppoa caeo ao aoppooo coaeoe , opae apeo.

Hpacee ocapceoo :

• pepaeco eeoc, coco , epe ao- oepeco opaa;

• ooe o a, pepaeco eeoc;

• poe, oep eeoc , ;

• c, ee , cae, caoex ;

• , ooee;

• () ecx , xocx ceo pao, caoex ;

• opaac epaoep , apa caoe opo , , acpaoo , , coco ceoe .

Hpacea , eooc caeo, coca oco -ecoo .

pepeee opp ccee ocapceo c eoo coepecoa acpao-paox exao e oxoo, oex . eoxooc paa « oa, e, peco eeoc ». pcoeee Poccco eepa oo ep ao aaa, , eaae , acoc, oex ocapce ca. Coepecoae aooaeca pooec eaa , e, e , ocoeo , « , ac oa ee, ae oppe». a acpao-paox , apaex opp ccee ocapceo c, oeax , eoxooc aoppox aooaece, peae ocapceo-cee ooe.

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